Biographical Register

A., Dr.: referred to in 22-27 in connection with the effect on him of eating butter, but not otherwise identified.

Accademia del Cimento: a Tuscan scientific society founded in 1657 by Ferdinand II and Prince Leopold. It disbanded in 1667 and published the results of its findings in saggi di Naturali Esperienze (Florence, 1667). It is mentioned in 22-188 and 199, although the two entries are identical

Adann' della à Roccocantantedo, Antonio: Cited in 22-8, but not identified.

Agricola, Georgius (Georg Bauer) , (1494-1555): German physician and mettalurgist, De re metallica libri XIII ( 1555). Quoted in 22-122 and 22-204.

Albemarle, Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of (1653-88): Governor of Jamaica 1687-8. Mentioned in 36-87. In 1686-7 he organised a joint stock company to salvage treasure from a Spanish wreck off the north east coast of Hispaniola. The expedition, described by Boyle's informant in 36-89, yielded him {pound}40,000. Estelle Frances Ward, Christopher Monck Duke of Albemarle (London, 1915), pp. 241-57.

Albertus Magnus: Churchman and scholastic philosopher. Referred to in 22-15.

Alcetas: Brother of Perdiccas, character in Cassandre: Brother of Perdiccas, character in Cassandre. Referred to in 1-108, 225.

Aldrovandi, Ulisse (1522-1605): Italian natural philosopher, Museum metallicum in Libros III (Bologna, 1648). Extracts from this work appear in 22-48.

Alexander the Great (356-323 BC): Alexander the Great, son of Philip II of Macedon, King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian empire. Character in Cassandre, referred to in, 1-90, 111, 137, 232. In 4-111 and 28-980, the historical figure is referred to in his own right.

Alexander, Prince: Referred to in 22-202 but not identified

Allin, Sir Thomas (1612-85): commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean 1663-5, he was then recalled to England but was again commander in the Mediterranean in 1668-71. He is most likely the 'one of our English Admiral that had commanded many men of warr in the streights' who appears in 21-312. See Julian S. Corbett, England in the Mediterranean: A Study of the Rise and Influence of British Power within the Straits 1603-1714 (2 vols., London 1964), ii, pp. 24, 25, 42, 47, 49,70.

Alston, Charles (d.1714): Prebendary of St Paul's and chaplain to Henry Compton (q.v.) Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26.

Amatus Lusitanus (1511-68): Portuguese Physician in the Papal States, an extract of whose work Curationum medicinalium centuria ( 1556) was published in Johann Schenck's compendium of medical observations, quoted by Boyle in 22-2

Anaxagoras (c. 500-428 BC): pre-Socratic philosopher, mentioned in 22-189.

Andros, Sir Edmund (1613-1714): Governor of New York 1674-81 and governor of the Dominion of New England 1686-9. He served as a soldier in the West Indies in the 1660s. He may be Boyle's informant in 36-81.

Ann.: Unidentified romance character. Referred to in 4-101, 102.

Anonymous, The: Ingredients associated with this figure are mentioned in 34-72 and 35-15. The reference is probably to the famous chymical writer, 'Eirenaeus Philalethes', the nom-de-plume of George Starkey, although Boyle did not know this.

Archimedes (287-212 BC): Greek natural philosopher. His work De in sidentibus humido is quoted by Mersenne in 22-53. He is also mentioned in 28-859, 1001.

Aristotle (384-322 BC): Greek philosopher whose natural philosophical writings were highly influential in Europe during the medieval and early modern period. His Historia animalium is quoted in 22-17, and his De respiratione is quoted in 40-3. He and his thought are also mentioned in 22-48, 65, 189, 196; 27-11; 28-809, 815, 825, 830.

Arnald of Villa Nova (c. 1240-1311): Spanish physician, theologian, astrologer and alchemist. Possibly the Arnaldus mentioned in 31-3.

Arsace: A Persian prince, character in Cassandre. Referred to in 1-180, 189, 297.

Artabbanes: Parthian prince, heroic suitor of Parthenissa; character in Parthenissa. Referred to in 4-55, 80, 93, 99, 100.

Artexerxe: Alternate name for Arsace, character in Cassandre. Referred to in 1-182, 188, 203.

Arthur, Patrick.: A tenant of Boyle's on his Irish estates. See 33-44 and Correspondence, v, 433, vi, 102-4

Atkinson, Thomas: served in Cromwell's army in Ireland in 1649. Recipes from him are in 22-64 and 95. See Sir Charles Firth and Godfrey Davies, The Regimental History of Cromwell's Army (2 vols., Oxford, 1940), ii, p. 409.

Augustus (63 BC-14 AD): the first Roman Emperor. Mentioned in 28-980.

Babington, William: Mentioned in the accounts in 33-44, but not otherwise identified

Ball, Nepthlali (d. before 1689): Royal Navy captain in 1665. He may be the 'Capt. Ball in Flintshire & Colney' mentioned in 19-35. See David Syrett and R. L. DiNardo, Commissioned Sea Officers of the Royal Navy 1660-1815, NRS Occasional Publication, i, ( 1994), p. 19.

Ball or Balle, William (c. 1627-90): Devonshire gentleman and astronomer, FRS 1660. He was buried in October 1690. Mentioned in 36-105. Royal Society, 160-1.

Bardon, Mr: Referred to in 10-25 but not identified.

Barlow, William (d. 1625): Archdeacon of Salisbury, Magnetical Advertisements: or, divers pertinent observations and approved experiments concerning the nature and properties of the Load-stone ( 1616). Boyle quotes from this work in 22-63, 8.

Barsine: See Statira. Referred to in 1-70.

Bartholin, Erasmus (1625-98): Danish physician, mathematician and physicist, MD Padua 1654. Mentioned in 32-8.

Bathurst, Ralph (1620-1704): physician and divine, FRS 1663. A recipe from him is provided in 13-20.

Bauhin, Jean (1541-1613): German botanist of Huguenot descent, Historia plantorum universalis ( 1650-1). This work is quoted in 22-18, and perhaps 22-19. Bauhin is also mentioned among several other modern botanical authors in 22-17; possibly he is also the 'Bauhinus' mentioned in 23-69.

Beale, John (1608-83): Somerset divine and natural philosopher, FRS 1662. An enthusiast for agricultural improvement, closely associated in the 1650s with Samuel Hartlib and his colleagues and later with the Royal Society, with which he was an active correspondent. Accounts of working with apple trees and making cider appearing in 21-203 and 224 may derive from him, as Beale devoted much time to the study of apple and cider production, observations which were published as Pomona, or an Appendix concerning Fruit-Trees, in relation to Cider, the Making and several ways of Ordering it ( 1664), published as part of John Evelyn's Sylva, or a discourse on forest-trees.

Beauvoir, Gabriel de: physician, MD Padua 1648 (incorporated Oxford 1653), candidate of the College of Physicians 1653, made fellow 1659, physician of Charterhouse 1656-73. A recipe of his is given in 13-16. See William Munk, Roll of the College of Physicians New ed. 3 vols., London, 1878 vol.1 p.292

Bedford, Anne Russell, Countess of (1615-84): daughter of Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, and, as of 1637, wife of William Russell, fifth Earl of Bedford. She, as 'Domina Bedford', is the recipient of a prescription in 10-2.

Beguin, Jean (c. 1550-1620): French chemist and author of influential chemical textbook Tyrocinum Chymicum e Naturae fonte et manuali experientia depromptum (1610). His work is mentioned in 14-13.

Benedetti, Alessandro (c. 1450-1512): Venetian physician. Severino is probably referring to his work Omnium a vertice ad calcem moroborum signa ( 1539) in the long extract in 22-59.

Benivieni, Antonio (1442-1502): medical writer, an extract of whose medical work De abditis nonnullis æc mirandis morborum et sonationum causis ( 1507) appeared in Schenck's compilation of medical observations (lib VII Obs. XXIV), quoted by Boyle in 22-1.

Benlowes, Edward (c. 1603-76): poet and patron. This may be the Mr Benlo whose 'Arcanum vitæ' is mentioned in 12-62 and [62a].

Berenice: A princess of Scythia, sister of Oroondate; character in Cassandre.

Berlich, Monsieur Adam Gottlob: 'Docteur en la Medicine at Leipezig' in 33-18.

Bernier, François, The History of the Late Revolution of the Empire of the Great Mogol, translation by Henry Oldenburg ( 1671-2). The original French edition had been published in Paris, 1670-1. Quoted in 22-182, 83, 84, 85.

Bernulph, Bishop: His tomb referred to in 22-126.

Berry, Sir John (1635-90): member of the commission which replaced the Navy Board in 1686-8. Mentioned in 36-74. J. M. Collinge, Navy Board Officials 1660-1832(London, 1978), p. 86.

Blacius: Roman leader, father of Izadora; character in Parthenissa. Referred to in 4-118, 147.

Blackmore, Sir Richard (died 1729): physician, he entered St Edmund Hall Oxford in 1668, graduated BA in 1674 and MA 1676, he subsequently travelled abroad, including Germany and took the degree of MD at Padua, he was back in England by 1687. This may be Boyle's informant in 36-86.

Bleny, Mrs Mary: mentioned in 36-76, this is possibly Mary, daughter of Henry Blayney (died 1646), 2nd Lord Blayney. In 1623 he married Jane (died 1686), daughter of Garret Moore, 1st Viscount Drogheda, who could be the Lady Bleny mentioned here. However why Boyle should call her Mrs Bleny is not clear. She was twice married, first to someone called Morton of co. Meath and then to Charles Meredyth, son of Sir Thomas Meredyth. Alternatively this could be Mary (died 1707) daughter of Dr Seddon or Sidney, married Henry Blayney (died 1691), he was the son of Sir Anthony Blayney, he was the younger son of Edward Blayney (died 1630), first Lord Blayney, in which case Lady Blayney is his wife (who was also his cousin), Joyce, daughter and heir of John Blayney of Gregynog in Wales. E. Rowley-Morris, The Family of Blayney (reprinted from Montgomeryshire Collections, London, [ 1890]), pp. 3, 8, 14, 18, 19, 23. Boyle also has a note on the vast extent of the Bleny family in BP 37, fol. 118

Boate, Gerard (1604-50): physician, MD Leyden 1628. He subsequently settled in London where he became known to the Hartlib Circle, and where Boyle and Lady Ranelagh were among his patients. He also speculated in Irish lands and compiled a Natural History of Ireland, posthumously published in 1652, after Boate's death. It is clear that Boyle is referring to Gerald, and not to his brother Arnold (also an associate of Samuel Hartlib), in these workdiaries, for in 6-14 (from 1650), the recipe is clearly attributed to 'Dr G Boate', and it is likely that all subsequent references to 'Dr Boate' (e.g. in Workdiary 7, 8-5 and 12-49) refer to that brother. See Great Instauration, 65.

Boda, Jo: Cited in 22-25, but not identified.

Boethius, Ancius Manlius Severinus (c.475-525): author of De consolatione philosophiae and De musica. Referred to in 22-176.

Bonaquistus: Referred to in 22-141, but not identified.

Bond, William (fl. c.1655-94): one of the most experienced captains in the Hudson Bay Company's employ. He was employed by the company in the Bay from 1672-9, to which he subsequently returned several times as commander of company ships. Boyle probably became acquainted with Bond through his involvement with the Hudson Bay Company. His observations on Hudson's Bay are recorded in 36-59,-65, 110-13.

Bontekoe, Willem (c. 1587-1647): Dutch seaman, his journal of a voyage to the East Indies of 1618-25 was first published as Journael ofte gedenckweerdige beschrigvingle van de Oost-Indische Reyse van W. Y. Bontekoe Begonnen den 18 December 1618, en vol-eynt den 16 November 1625 ( 1646). The French translation was published as Voyage aux Indies Orientales de Botenkoe, traduit de hollandois ( 1663). Extracts from this French translation appear in 22-49.

Boodt, Anselmus Boetius de(c. 1550-1632): physician in ordinary to Rudolf II for whom he wrote his only published work, Gemmarum et lapidum historia ( 1609) (see Works, iii, 418). In 22-71 Boyle quotes an as yet unidentified work on gems, whose author makes mention of previous writers on the subject. Boyle's marginal annotation indicates that Boetius's Gemmarum et lapidum historia is one of these works referred to.

Borgia, Roderigo (c.1431-1503): Pope Alexander VI from 1492. Mentioned in 37-22. He issued the bull Quamvis ad amplianda, proclaiming a crusade against the Ottoman Turks on 1 June 1500. Kenneth M. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant (1204-1571) (4 vols., Philadelphia, 1976-84), II, p. 527.

Boym, Michal (1612-59): Polish Jesuit missionary. Extracts from his Flora Sinensis, Fructus floresque humillime porrigens ( 1656), on the botany of China, published in Thévenot's compendium of travellers's accounts are quoted in 22-101,102.

Boyle, Charles (1639-94): Boyle's nephew, Viscount Dungarvan, later Lord Clifford.

Bradley, Nathaniel: Consul at Tripoli, 1671 to c. 1677, after which he went on to act as Agent-General of the Royal African Company at Cape Coast from c. 1678 to c. 1681. His responses to Boyle's enquiries are recorded in 36-47, 50.

Brasavola, Antonio [Musa] (1500-55): physician at Ferrara and later for Pope Paul III, whose work, Examen omnium Simplicium medicamentorum, quorum in officines usus est (1536) is referred to by Severino in 22-59, where 'Borsium Ducem Ferrariensium' is one of the Dukes of Ferrara whom Brasavola treated.

Breton, Thomas: merchant in Manila from 1644. When the East India Company was seeking to re-establish its trade with the Philippines in the late 1660s, it was advised to consult with him, so he was apparently still there at that time. He could well be the 'person who was in the chief island of the Manilla's' mentioned in 21-739ff. See Sir William Foster, The English Factories in India 1642-5 (Oxford, 1913), pp. 218-226; Sir William Foster, The English Factories in India 1668-9 (Oxford, 1927), pp. 27-8.

Broghill, Margaret Boyle (1623-89), Lady: daughter of Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, she married Boyle's brother Roger (1621-79), Lord Broghill in 1641.

Brooke, Robert Greville, 2nd Baron (1608-43): one of the leading opponents to Charles I among the Lords and commander of Parliamentary forces. He also wrote philosophical works, and the aphorism attributed to 'Lord Brook' in Workdiary 5 may come from one of these.

Brosse, Gui de la (died 1641): French botanist and physician, De la natura vertu, et utilité des Plantes ( 1628) quoted in 22-133.

Brouncker, William, 2nd Viscount (c. 1620-84): mathematician, courtier, Chancellor to the Queen, naval administrator, first President of the Royal Society. He provides an account of a pendulum in 21-386a and provides further information on the same subject in 29-229a. Royal Society, 134.

Browne, Dr Edward (1644-1708): physician and traveller, FRS 1667. In 1668-9 he sailed to Rotterdam and went to Leyden, Amsterdam and Utrecht and then travelled to Vienna and from there made trips to the mines of Hungary, Thessaly and Styria and Carinthia, which experiences he recounted in Brief Account of some Travels in Hungary ( 1673). He is a frequent informant of Boyle's about these mines, especially in Workdiary 21 in which he appears often.

Brün (or Unmussig), Johann: Paracelsian physician, settled in England in 1648 and subsequently moved to Ireland, he acted as medical advisor to various members of Boyle's family and corresponded with Boyle in the 1650s. He is mentioned in 12-2. Correspondence, i, 158, 163-4, 187-8.

Brussels, Viscount of: Referred to in 22-202 but not identified.

Bryen, Dennis: Mentioned in the accounts in 33-44, but not otherwise identified.

Bucke, George: A man of this name sent Boyle a letter, now lost, 'about his Estate' ( Correspondence, vi, p. 391), but nothing more is known of him. Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26.

Bureus, Andreas, Regni Sueciæ geographica et politica descriptio (1633, 2nd ed) in Henricus Suter, Suecia, sive de Suecorum Regis dominiis et opibus, commentarius politicus ( 1633). Quotes from this work appear in 22-39, 40.

Burkart: Referred to in 18-18 but not identified.

Burlington, Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of (1612-97): Boyle's eldest brother. The ore mentioned in 38-90a[17] is presumably from his estates either in Ireland or Yorkshire.

Burnet, Gilbert (1643-1715): Churchman, politician and confidant of Boyle. Referred to in the account of Boyle's charitable expenditure in 33-37.

Busbecq, Angien-Thislain de (1522-92): the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand's ambassador to the Sublime Porte, 1555-62, whose account of that legation, Legætonis Turcicae Epistolae 4 (1589), is referred to by Mersenne in 22-50.

Butler, William (1535-1618): physician, licensed to practice physic by Cambridge University in 1572. Usually styled doctor, although he never took the degree of MD, he became a celebrated physician and empiric and treated Henry, Prince of Wales and James I. A recipe attributed to him is in 8-10.

Callimachus: Chief priest at the temple of Venus; character in Parthenissa. Referred to in 4-57, 4-58.

Camden, William (1551-1623): author of Brittania (1586; 1587; 1590; 1594, last edition 1607), which is referred to (by Walton) in 22-15.

Capellanus, Claudius: author of Mare Rabbinicum infidem ( 1667). Possibly the author quoted in 22-135.

Cardano, Girolamo (1501-76): Italian physician and mathematician, author of De subtilitate libri XXI ( 1550). Extracts from an metallurgical work of his are found in Workdiary 18.

Carington, Mr.: a scrivener living near Charing Cross in 26-3.

Cassandre: Eldest son of the Macedonian general Antipater, character in Cassandre. Referred to in 1-107.

Cassini, Gian Domenico (1625-1712): Italian natural philosopher and astronomer, and from 1669 a member of the Académie des Sciences at Paris. Referred to in 21-262 and in 22-188, 199.

Castell-Rodrigo, François de Moura-Cortereal, Marquis of (d. 1675): Governor of the Spanish Netherlands 1664-8. Mentioned in 24-5.

Castelli, Pietro (1574-1662). Italian physician, botanist, chemist and surgeon; author of Hyaena odorifera (1638, 2nd edition., 1668). Quoted in 22-121.

Castle, George (c. 1635-73): London physician and author. In the 1650s he was studying at Oxford and attended the experimental philosophy meetings. A recipe that cured him of the jaundice is given in 13-5. See Great Instauration, 166.

Cauche, François: traveller, whose travels to Africa are recounted in Relation du voyage que François Cauche de Rouen a fait à Madagascar, edited and published in Claude Morisot's collection of travellers' accounts. Quoted in 22-104, 112.

Chardin, Sir John (1643-1712): French diamond merchant and traveller. His observations of the East Indies, recorded in 36-19, 20, where probably made either in 1667-9, when he visited India as agent for the Shah of Persia Solyman III, or some time between 1673 and 1677, during which time, although based in Persia, he visited several Indian cities. The events recounted in 36-21 probably took place in 1677 when he returned to Europe by sea around Africa. He is probably also Boyle's informant in 36-78. In 1681 Chardin emigrated to England because of the persecution of Protestants in France and he was knighted in March of that year. Boyle may have become acquainted with him through the Royal Society, of which Chardin was a fellow from 1682-5, or through Boyle's involvement in the East India Company, which employed Chardin as agent in the Netherlands.

Charles V (1500-58): Holy Roman Emperor. Referred to in 22-176.

Charles XI (1655-97): King of Sweden from 1655. Mentioned in 32-8.

Charles Louis, Prince Elector of the Palatinate (1617-80): formally Elector of the Palatinate from 1632, but in exile from 1621 and only restored to his title in 1648. He was the son of Elizabeth of Bohemia, the sister of Charles I, and spent many years in England in the . He is the recipient of a prescription in 10-3, and is also mentioned in 24-3 (in which entry the principal city of the Palatinate, Heidelberg, is also mentioned).

Charleton, Walter (1620-1707): physician and medical and philosophical writer, MD 1643, Oxford, FRS, 1662, Fellow of the College of Physicians, 1676. He was physician to both Charles I and Charles II. He remained in England during the Interregnum, during which time he prepared translations of van Helmont's works and wrote works expounding the atomistic theory of matter (e.g. Physiologia Epicuro-Gassendo-Charltoniana, or a Fabrick of Science natural upon the Hypothesis of Atoms ( 1654). At the Restoration he had a prolific career as royal physician and President of the Royal College of Physicians for several years. He may be the 'ingenious Dr. C.' mentioned in 36-34 and conceiveably also the 'Dr C', mentioned in 21-748 as present at a conversation with Mr G. of Suffolk.

Chinfocum or Shin fo-çung, Michael: a Chinese man who was in England in 1687 (or so his name was rendered in European documents). He went to Oxford where he compiled a catalogue of the Chinese books in the Bodleian, as a result of which the librarian, Thomas Hyde, gave him a letter of introduction to Boyle dated 26 July 1687. A pass was issued for to return to China on 19 October 1687. The meeting recorded in 36-69 presumably took place between these two dates. See Correspondence, vi, 226.

Cholmeley, Sir Hugh (1632-89): the engineer responsible for building the mole at Tangier when it came into English possession. His work in building the mole is mentioned in 19-22.

Christian V (1646-99): King of Denmark from 1670. Mentioned in 32-8.

Cl.: Unidentified romance character. Referred to in 1-232, 235.

Clarke, Dr John (1582-53): MD Cambridge 1615, physician at St Bartholomew's Hospital, 1634-53. He is very likely the 'Dr C.' whose account is in 21-501. See Victor Cornelius Medvei and John L. Thornton(eds), The Royal Hospital of Saint Bartholomew 1123-1973 (London, 1974), p. 386.

Clarke, Timothy (c. 1620-72): physician, MD Oxford 1652. A recipe of his is given in 13-23.

Clemens Alexandrinus, Titus Flavious (c. 150-216): Greek Church Father. This is Clement of Alexandria referred to in 22-65.

Clodius, Fredrick (fl. 1650-70): Helmontian chemist of German origin. He arrived in England c. 1653 and became associated with Samuel Hartlib, whose son-in-law he became. Boyle thought highly of him at first, as is evidenced by his frequent appearance in Workdiaries 9, 12 (in which he is the most frequent source) and 13-16, but relations between them seem later to have deteriorated. Tried in the Fire.

Cock, Christopher (fl. 1669-97): prospective glass maker. He may be the 'eminent maker of telescopes referred to in 21-387. See Gloria Clifton, Directory of British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550-1851 (London, 1995), pp. 59-60.

Coen, Johann Baptista: French chemist and savant. In 1654 Coen lived in Paris and was known to Samuel Hartlib, Sir Kenelm Digby and Johann Moriaen. A recipe of his is given in 12-38. See also Correspondence, i, 154-6 (Hartlib to Boyle, 28 February 1654)

Collins, Dr Samuel (1619-70): physician to the Tsar Alexis, 1660-9, who recounted his experiences in Russia in the work The Present State of Russia (1671). He provides Boyle with many accounts of phenomena in Russia in Workdiary 21 and elsewhere.

Columbus, Christopher (c. 1446-1606): discoverer of America. Mentioned in 28-842.

Compton, Henry (1632-1713): Bishop of London from 1675 to his death. Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26.

Coney, Colonel Richard: Governor of Bermuda 1683-7. He is probably Boyle's informant concerning hurricanes recorded in 36-82, 3. William M. Cox (ed), Bermuda Constitutional Documents (Bermuda, 1970), p. 115.

Cork, Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of (1566-1643): Boyle's father, known as the Great Earl of Cork. Referred to in 1-67.

Cornwallis, Elizabeth (died c. 1674): second wife of Sir Frederick Cornwallis (1610-62), baronet. A recipe that cured he daughter of an ague is given in 13-4.

Corvinus, Franciscus: A figure with botanical interests mentioned in 22-100 and there associated with Rome, but not otherwise identified.

Courcelles, John de: granted denization in 1683. Possibly the Mr de Course mentioned in 36-70, although de Course may be the 'learned traveller', whom Boyle mentions in connection with the same mountain in the Pyrenees in an article published in Phil Trans in 1670. William A. Shaw, Letters of Denization and Acts of Naturalization for Aliens in England and Ireland 1603-1700 Publications of the Huguenot Society, 13 ( 1911), p. 141. (see Works, vi, 237.

Coxe, Daniel (1640-1730): Physician, natural philosopher and protégé of Boyle. Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26.

Coxe, Dr Thomas (1615-85): physician, MD Padua 1641, Fellow of the College of Physicians, 1649, FRS, 1662. Recipes attributed to him are in 8-8, 9.

Crato von Kraftheim, Johannes (1519-85): imperial court physician to Rudolph II and friend of the Neo-Stoic Justus Lipsius; author or Consiliorum et epistolarum medicinalium Lib. I-VII ( 1620). His Epistolae are quoted in 22-205.

Cruz, Gaspar da (d. 1576): Portuguese Dominican missionary to China, author of Tractado em que cotam muito por esteso a cousas da China ( 1569). The extract in 22-205 is taken from the version published by Samuel Purchas.

Currer, William (c. 1617-1668): chemical physician, MD Leyden 1643. Some recipes from him are in Workdiaries 12 and in 13. See R. W. Innes Smith, English Speaking Students of Medicine at the University of Leyden (Edinburgh, 1932), 61.

Cutler: Referred to in 21-236. Not identified.

D., L.: Referred to in 1-61 and apparently in the heading to workdiary 3 and presumably a female acquaintance of Boyle, but not identified.

D'Alibert: Referred to in 22-70. Possibly Pierre d'Alibert, Treasurer General of France and friend of Descartes.

d'Allonne, Abel Tassin: secretary to Queen Mary II. Mentioned in 36-116. Calendar of Treasury Books, 1689-1692, p. 1250.

Darius: King of Persia and father of Parisatis and Statira, defeated by Alexander, character in Cassandre. Referred to in 1-245.

Dartmouth, George Legge, 1st Baron (1648-91): Admiral and Naval administrator. Mentioned in 36-73, 75.

Davies, Nicholas (born c. 1614): Exeter physician, MD Leyden 1638. Recipes attributed to him are in 8-11, -13. In addition, a prescription for Boyle's illness also attributed to him is in BP 18, fols. 101-2. See John H Raach, A Directory of English Country Physicians 1603-43 (London, 1962), p. 40; R. W. Innes Smith, English Speaking Students of Medicine at the University of Leyden (Edinburgh, 1932), p. 64.

De Boui, Mr.: Mentioned in 12-30 in connection with being 'newly cur'd' but not identified.

De. L. or M., Mr.: referred to in 33-2 but not otherwise identifed.

Derlack, Seiur Sigismond: perhaps Boyle's informant in 36-103. William III had been given permission to recruit soldiers in the Protestant Cantons. On 17 June 1690 a pass was issued for Derlack to travel from England to Switzerland, the pass stated that he had served the King for a year as captain in Colonel John Beaumont's regiment. CSPD 1690-1, p. 35.

D'Espagne, Jean (1591-1659): French Protestant minister and author, pastor of a Huguenot congregation which met at Somerset House in Westminster. Boyle records extracts from his writings or sermons in BP 3, fol. 90 (V:8) where his name is clearly marked in the margin; in the following two entries he is merely referred to as 'Idem'.

Diemerbroeck, Isbrand van (1609-74), Dutch medical writer, Tractus de Peste ( 1665). Quoted in 22-124, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 30, 31, 32, 135, 136.

Digby, Sir Kenelm (1603-65): courtier, soldier, author and virtuoso. After an adventurous youth as a soldier and courtier, Digby devoted himself to scientific and philosophical studies in the 1640s, when he stayed many years in France, and produced there his treatises 'Of Bodies' and 'Of the Immortality of the Soul'. He also developed there his renowned 'sympathetic powder', which was to cure wounds if applied to the instrument which had inflicted the damage. He returned to England in 1654, where he continued his virtuoso interests, and was made FRS in 1663. He contributed many recipes to Boyle, such as 10-23, 12-5, 30 and 42, and especially in Workdiary 13 (1655), in which workdiary he is the principal source.

Donatus, Marcellus: physician, the latter part of whose work, De variolis et Morbillis tractatus a nullo anteo editius M. D. Eiusdem de Radice purgante quam Mechiocan vocant ( 1569) is referred to by Severino in 22-59.

Dollinger, Matthias: 'the chief officer' at the gold mine of Chremnitz, according to Edward Browne in Brief Account of some Travels in Hungary ( 1673), 100. He may be the 'Chamargafus that had the oversight of the golden mine' mentioned in 21-369.

Drew, Ba:.: Referred to along with Garret Roche in the accounts in 33-50, but not otherwise identified.

Ducasse, Jean Baptiste (1650-1715): French Admiral and colonial administrator. He was commander of the French on the coast of Senegal 1678-84. This could be the 'ingenious Gentleman, that was imploy'd in the French Colony on the Coast of Afric, & liv'd in those Parts about 5 years' whose observations about West Africa are recorded in 36-54,-7. Andrew F. Clark and Lucie Colvin Phillips, Historical Dictionary of Senegal (2nd edition, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1994), p. 39.

Duchesne, Joseph (Josephus Quercetanus) (c. 1544-1609): French physician and Paracelsian author. Mentioned in 22-129 and 24-5.

Duckett, Thomas: inventor associated with Samuel Hartlib. Boyle discusses his method of tanning in 12-33, which, according to Charles Webster is also discussed in Usefulness I ( Great Instauration, 426. However, see Works, vi, 477, which suggests a totally different, non-Hartlibian, source for the process mentioned there.

Dugless, Count: mentioned in 32-8, he is probably a descendant of Sir Robert Douglas, a Scottish soldier who entered Swedish military service and was ennobled as Count of Skinninge in 1654. Marquis De Ruvigny (ed), The Nobilities of Europe (London, 1910), p. 294.

Dunlop, William (1654-1700): Scottish minister. He emigrated to Carolina in 1684 with a party of Scotsmen where he remained until after the 1688 revolution. He is Boyle's informant in 36-97a,-100. He is probably also the informant in 36-101. The Spanish claimed that Florida extended north into Southern Carolina.

Dwight, John: A servant of Boyle's, referred to in memoranda for his Will in 33-26, and in his Will: 'Life of Boyle', p. 261.

Eliot, John (1604-90): Missionary and Minister of Roxbury in Massachusetts. He was actively involved in Boyle's projects for the conversion of the native Americans and worked on the translation of the Bible into the native language. Eliot is definitely the 'Mr Eliot' whose letters to Boyle are mentioned in 21-389 and 402 and he may also be the 'antient Divine that spent divers years in America as a planter' in 21-414.

Eliot, Thomas (died 1677): courtier, keeper of the King's house at Newmarket 1669-77. Evelyn records attending a race between one of Eliot's horses and one of the King's on 9 October 1671. He provides Boyle with accounts of phenomena involving horse racing in 21-328. E. S. De Beer (ed), The Diary of John Evelyn (6 vols. Oxford, 1955), iii, pp. 588-9.

Ent, Sir George (1604-89): physician, Apologia pro circuitione sanguinis ( 1641). Quoted in 22-191, where Ent makes reference to Galen's De usu partium corporis humani (with full bibliographical details provided in the margin)

Epicurus (341-270 BC): Greek philosopher, exponent of atomism, this is presumably Epicurea, mentioned in 22-65; Boyle also refers to 'epicurean Mobility' in 28-814.

Evelyn, John (1620-1706): government official, virtuoso, horticulturist, diarist, FRS 1660. An active member of the Royal Society, and author of Sylva, or a discourse of forest-trees

Faber, Albert Otto (c. 1612-84): German Helmontian physician, he arrived in England in 1661. Probably ' Dr. O. F.' mentioned in 24-9 (Samuel Hartlib habitually called him Otto Faber). Harriet Sampson, Dr Faber and his Celebrated Cordial, Isis, XXXIV ( 1943), pp. 472-96, on p. 473 and n. 5.

Fabricus, Georgius, Chemnicensis, De Metallicis rebus ac nominibus observationes ( 1566). It is probably from this work that Boyle is quoting from in 22-77.

Fairclough, Dr James (c. 1630-85): London physician, MD Cambridge 1661. Probably the Dr Fairecloth mentioned in 26-1, 3.

Farrar, Dr Richard: physician and friend of Sir Kenelm Digby. Recipes of his are provided in 13-9 and 17, often in conjunction with Digby. See Correspondence. i, 95.

Faustus, Johann (died c. 1540): In 23-11 Boyle refers to 'Dr Faustus's disciple', but it seems unlikely that this refers to the famous German occult philosopher of this name, who died c. 1540.

Ferrara, Borso, 1st Duke of: Governor of the city 1450-71. Referred to in 22-59.

Feynes, Henri de (de Montfort), French traveller, Voyage par terre depuis Paris jusques à la Chine ( 1630). Boyle quotes from this work in 22-85,-98.

Ficino, Marsilio (1433-99): Florentine philosopher, philologist, physician and priest. and translator of the woks of Plato, Plotinus and Hermes Trismegistus. Quoted in 22-131.

Flamminius: Roman hero to whom Blacius promised his daughter Izadora as he refused her to Perolla; character in Parthenissa. Referred to in 4-6a.

Fleetwood, Charles (c.1619-92): Cromwellian general. This could be the Major General mentioned in 36-109. R. L. Graves and R. Zaller (eds), Biographical Dictionary of British Radicals in the Seventeenth Century (3 vols., Brighton, 1984), I, pp. 287-9.

Fludd, Robert (1574-1637): English physician, hermetic philosopher and author of Utriusque Cosmi Maioris scilicet et Minoris Metaphysica, Physica atque Technica Historia ( 1617). Quoted in 22-175.

Fonerus, P.: Cited in 22-120, but not identified.

Forestus, Petrus, also Pieter van Foreest (1521/2-97): Dutch physician to Willem of Orange. Quoted in 22-131.

Fournier, George, Hydrographie (1st ed. 1643, 2nd 1667), p. 406 (1667 ed.). Quoted in 22-142, 43, 44, 45,46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54.

Fracastoro, Girolamo (c. 1478-1553): physician, De sympathia et antipathia rerum liber unus ( 1546). Extracts from this work appear in 22-52.

Fraser, James (1639-99): Scottish Presbyterian minister. Mentioned in 37-27, 29.

Furnace, Robert: a 'noted Tinker of Clerkenwel' whose cure by Valentine Greatrakes in 1666 was 'talkd of all over the Town', and reports on which by Fairclough and others were included in Greatrakes' Brief Account (London, 1666), pp. 48-9, 71. See 26-1.

Furtado de Medonça, João: son of Afonso Furtado de Castro do Rio de Mendonça (1625 or 1626-1675), who was Viscount of Barbacena and Governor of Brazil, 1671-75. João accompanied his father to Brazil, and it is probably he who is mentioned in connection with phenomena in Brazil in 21-562. See Juan Lopes Sierra, A Governor and His Image in Baroque Brazil, (ed) Stuart B. Schwartz (Minneapolis, 1979), pp. 3, 17, 20.

G., Dr.,: a medical practitioner in Norfolk and Suffolk but otherwise unidentified. Referred to in 21-667, etc.

G., Mr.,: another figure with Suffolk links. 21-746, 21-747.

Galen (129/130-199/200): Greek physician and author of numerous medical texts whose views on medicine and the humoral composition of the body was highly influential in the European medical tradition throughout the medieval and early modern period. Mentioned in 22-105, 27-10. In 22-191 the writer Sir George Ent makes reference to a section of his work De usu partium corporis humani (full bibliographical details provided in the margin). His Thrasyblus sive utrum medicinae sit an gymnasticae hygieine is quoted in 22-105. The extract in 40-2 is from his De Simplicium Medicamentorum Temperamentis et Facultatibus ix 9 (Kühn xii p. 207).

Galilei, Galileo (1564-1642): Italian natural philosopher, Siderius nuncius ( 1610), which is probably the work mentioned in 22-160,-1

Geldria, Duke of: His tomb referred to in 22-126.

Gellius, Aulus(c.130-180): Latin author and grammarian, most well-known for his Noctes Atticae, which contain extracts from many classical authors. Quoted in 22-139.

Gemma, Cornelius (1535-79): Louvain physician and astronomer, author of De naturae divinis chracterismis ( 1575). This is possibly the figure quoted in 22-129.

Gesner, Konrad (1516-65): Swiss physician and scholar. The extract in 22-15 is from his Historia animalium, where he quotes Albertus Magnus. The work referred to in 36-2 is probably his posthumously published Opera botanica.

Gilbert, William (1544-1603): physician to Elizabeth I and James I, De Magnete ( 1600). Boyle quotes from this work in 22-63, 67.

Glauber, Johann Rudolph (1604-70): German chemist who built a celebrated laboratory in Amsterdam. He was renowned for his work in distillation, which he set out in his work Furni novi philosophici (1646-9). Recipes and techniques from Glauber appear frequently in Workdiary 9 (c. 1654). The panacea mentioned in Workdiary 15, fol. 97v. is presumably Glauber's panacea antimonialis which was probably antimony pentasulfide. He is also mentioned in 29-286 and his 'universal salt' is mentioned in 35-14. He may be the 'G' referred to in 37-36.

Glica: Referred to in 22-176 but not identified.

Goclenius, Rudolph (Goeckel the Younger) (1572-1621): Physician and Professor of Natural Philosophy and Mathematics at the University of Marburg, author of Uranoscopia, chiroscopia & metaposcopia ( 1608), as well as a Tractatus de magnetica curatione vulneris ( 1610). His De Pestis, fabrisque pestilentis causis ( 1607) is quoted in 22-129.

Godolphin, Sir William, of Spargor St Mabyn Cornwall (1635-96): politician and diplomat, knighted 28 February 1668, FRS 1664. He went to Spain as part of the entourage of Edward Montagu, Earl of Sandwich, in 1666, and succeeded him as ambassador there in 1671. He was in England in 1668-9, and is probably one of the 'couple of gentlemen that accompanied' Sandwich to Spain who informs Boyle about Madrid in 21-522. His companions in this entry may include Sir John Werden (1640-1716), secretary to Sandwich in his embassy. Godolphin is also probably the 'Sir W.G.' who discusses Dartmoor with Boyle in 21-346. This latter figure could also possibly be Sir William Godolphin (c.1640-1710), of Godolphin, Breage, Cornwall, created baronet 29 April 1661. B. D. Henning, The House of Commons 1660-90 (3 vols., London, 1983), ii, pp. 407-9.

Godwin, Sir John (d. 1688): member of the commission which replaced the Navy Board in 1686-8. Knighted c. 1680. Mentioned in 36-73,74. J. M. Collinge, Navy Board Officials 1660-1832 (London, 1978), pp. 24, 110; Robert Latham and William Mathews (eds), The Diary of Samuel Pepys (11 vols., London, 1970-83), X, pp. 182-4.

Gordon, Sir Robert (1647-1704): Scottish baronet, inventor and virtuoso, best known for the water pump described in 36-73,-5. Elected F.R.S. in 1686. Also mentioned in 37-28.

Gourdan (or Geurdan), Aaron (died 1675): physician, MD Rheims 1634, practised in London from c. 1636. He provided Boyle with a recipe in 13-2. See John Ainsworth (ed), Index of Wills Proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury 1671-5 (London, 1942), p. 83.

Greatorex, Ralph (died 1712?): London mathematical instrument maker and entrepreneur. Boyle refers to him in Workdiary 12, and in 13-40 and 14-4, and to his vitriol in 29-298. He is evidently also the 'Mr Gr.' or 'Mr G.' referred to in relation to the lead mines in Derbyshire in 19-7 and 21-518 (as also 21-396, 715, where he is described as an 'ingeneer'). In addition, he is almost certainly the 'Ingeneer' referred to in relation to diving in 21-394, since he had contacts with the Royal Society on such matters over the period 1664-1669, not least in connection with Tangier (cf. Thomas Birch, The History of the Royal Society (4 vols., London, 1756-7), i, 370, ii, 262, 363). This means that he may also be the 'Mr Gr' lately at Tangiers' in 21-714, hence explaining the side trip to Teneriffe about which he told Pepys. ( Pepys Diary, R. Latham and W. Matthews (eds), The Diary of Samuel Pepys(11 vols., London 1970-83), ii, p. 21). See Great Instauration, 171.

Greatrakes, Valentine (1629-83): 'the stroker', healer from an Anglo-Irish gentry family. Workdiary 26, where he is usually referred to as 'Mr G', consists of accounts of his cures which he performed by laying on hands or stroking affected parts of the body.

Grill, Antony (fl. 1651): Alchemist based in Amsterdam, who also went by the name of 'Aurifaber'. In 1651 he collaborated in and subsidized a project undertaken by Benjamin Worsley, Johann Sibertus Küffler and Johannes Moriaen to transmute tin slag (scoria) into gold. He is most likely the 'Mr Grill' whose 'mineral' yields small amounts of silver in 15-49. See Moriaen, 226-9.

Guildford, Elizabeth Boyle, Countess of, (d. 1667): the widow of Boyle's brother Lewis. Possibly the 'Lady G.' mentioned in 23-20.

Gwin, Mr: purveyor of loadstones, referred to in 29-235 but not otherwise identified.

Guy, Colonel Richard: member of the Barbados assembly in 1674. He may be the 'Col. G.' who provides Boyle with accounts of Barbados in Workdiary 21. He is possibly the supplier of the 'Barbados Tar' mentioned in 38-12[17]. CSP Col. 1669-74, p. 546.

Gyldenløve, Ulrik Fredrick (1638-1704): Statholder or Viceroy of Norway 1664-99. Boyle probably met him when he was Danish ambassador extraordinary to England in 1669-70. He provides Boyle with accounts of phenomena in Norway in 21-706. See E.S. de Beer (ed), Diary of John Evelyn, 5 vols. (Oxford, 1955) iii, p. 537. He may also be the Danish gentleman whose observations are recorded in 36-51, 52. See Works, xiii, 410.

H., Mr. (1): this appears to be the name ofthe 'Experiencd master of a Glasse house' from whom Boyle obtained a good deal of information. See 21-314, 400, 749, 751, 23-29, 34.

H., Mr. (2): a traveller who visited China and possibly other parts of the Far East. See 21-417, and probably also 21-419, 21-420.

Halsall or Hassall, Edward (c. 1627-86): one of the royalists responsible for the murder of Anthony Ascham, the Commonwealth's envoy in Spain, in 1650. He served in the royalist army during the Civil War and was described as a major at the time of the murder. He and the other murders were imprisoned with 'much shew of rigour' by the Spanish and was still in prison in Madrid in July 1653 although he subsequently escaped. He was appointed to equerry to Charles II's queen, Catherine of Braganza, at the Restoration. He is probably Boyle's informant in 24-7. It is possible that he is also the 'Major H.' who provides Boyle with accounts of the lead mines in Wales in 21-764. Jason T. Peacey, Order and disorder in Europe: parliamentary agents and royalist thugs, 1649-50, Historical Journal XL ( 1997), pp 968-9; O. Ogle, W. H. Bliss, W. Dunn Macray and F. J. Routledge (eds), Calendar of Clarendon State Papers (5 vols., Oxford, 1872-1970), II, pp. 63, 220. Additional information kindly supplied by Dr Peacey.

Handyside, Mr.: an 'Ingenious Surgeon' mentioned in 36-89 for his involvement in the salvage operations on a Spanish wreck off the north east coast of Hispaniola in the late 1680's in which the 2nd Duke of Albemarle was also involved.

Hannibal: Carthaginian general attacking the Romans; character in Parthenissa. Referred to in 4-16, 126, 166, 215, 251.

Harding, John (c. 1601-65): Presbyterian minister of Brinkworth in Wiltshire and translator of Paracelsus. A recipe attributed to him is in 15-38. See Great Instauration, 281; A. G. Matthews, Calamy Revised (Oxford, 1934), p. 247.

Harrington, John: employed by the East India Company at Porakad on the Malabar coast in 1665. He was captured by the Dutch during the second Dutch War and taken first to Colombo in Sri Lanka and then to Batavia (about which, see 21-735), where he escaped in on 15 August 1667. He was back in England by 1669. He may be the 'inquisitive traveller present at the famous pearl fishing at Manar' (21-722ff.), which is an island between Sri Lanka and the Indian mainland celebrated for its pearl banks. See Sir William Foster, The English Factories in India 1665-7 (Oxford, 1925), p. 75, 92 and n. 2; Ethel Bruce Sainsbury (ed), A Calendar of the Court Minutes etc of the East India Company 1686-70 (Oxford, 1929), p. 252.

Harrison, Mr.: Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26, but not otherwise identified.

Hartmann, Johann (1568-1631): German physician and chemist, author of Praxis chymiatrica (published posthumously, in 1633). He and his work are referred to in 16-13.

Heath, Ralph: Someone of this name wrote to Henry Oldenburg from Durham on 2 February 1677, but little else is known about him. In the letter he ascribes his continuing ill health, including the loss of his sight, to a 'hypocondriack Melancholly' ( A.R. Hall and M.B. Hall, The Correspondence of Henry Oldenburg, xiii, 202-4). This sounds like the person of the same name who complains of his bad eyesight in 21-276.

Helmont, Francis Mercurius van (1618-99): son of Johannes Baptista van Helmont (1579-1644). He followed in his father's footsteps as a chemist and physician, and edited and published his father's works in the Ortus Medicinae. A recipe attributed to him appears is in 12-3.

Helmont, Johannes Baptista van (1579-1644): Flemish chemist who profoundly influenced chemical thought and practise in the seventeenth century. He is most known for developing the concept of 'gas' and coining that term. His famous experiment involving weighing a willow tree before and after its growth (from which experiment he argued that all matter was reducible to water) is repeated and referred to in Workdiary 21, p. 12 (in this context, see also Works, ii, 257-9. See Walter Pagel, Johan Baptista van Helmont, Reformer of Science and Medicine (Cambridge, 1982). Helmont's 'Coagulum' is referred to in 24-9 and his elixir proprietatis in 35-17. However, in references to 'Helmont' alone, it could also refer to his son Francis Helmont, who followed his father as a chemist and writer.

Helvetius (Sweiter), Johann Friedrich (c. 1629-1709): German alchemist and writer. Possibly the 'Helvet.' mentioned in 34-24.

Henebrys, William: Mentioned in the accounts in 33-44, but not otherwise identified.

Henshaw, Thomas (1618-1700): courtier, diplomat and scientific writer. In 1672 he was secretary to the Duke of Richmond ambassador extraordinary to Denmark where he remained as envoy extraordinary until July 1674. 32-8 is an extract from Henshaw's letter to Henry Oldenburg from Copenhagen dated 14 March 1674 in R.A. Hall and M.B. Hall, The Correspondence of Henry Oldenburg, x, 510-3. Royal Society, 136; Gary M. Bell, A Handlist of British Diplomatic Representatives 1509-1688 (London, 1990), pp. 38-9.

Herbert, Sir Thomas (1606-82): traveller to Persia and author, A Relation of Some Yeares Travaile (London, 1634). 22-159 may be a quotation from this work; however the page reference does not correspond to either to 1634 or 1638 edition of his work.

Herbert, William, Lord (1640-74): eldest son of the fifth Earl of Pembroke who appears in Workdiary 9. He was styled Lord Herbert from 1650 to 1669, in which year he succeeded as sixth Earl of Pembroke. This is probably the 'Domini Herbert' to whom Mayerne provides a prescription in 10-24. However, this figure could also possibly be Richard Herbert (died 1655), second Lord Herbert of Chirbury, who succeeded his father in 1648.

Heurnius, Johannes i.e. Jan van Heurne (1543-1601): Dutch physician, whose patients included William and Maurice of Orange. Professor of Medicine at Leiden from 1581 until his death. His De Peste is quoted in 22-129, 135.

Hewer, William (1642-1715): member of the commission which replaced the Navy Board in 1686-8. Mentioned in 36-73,74. J. M. Collinge, Navy Board Officials 1660-1832 (London, 1978), pp. 24, 110; Robert Latham and William Mathews (eds), The Diary of Samuel Pepys (11 vols., London, 1970-83), X, pp. 182-4>.

Hill, Colonel Arthur (1601?-63): served in the army in Ireland and in Parliament. A recipe of his is given in 13-8.

Hippocrates (c. 460-370 BC): Greek medical philosopher. His Aphorismi, sive sententiae are quoted in 22-191.

Holles , Sir Frescheville (1642-72): soldier. He lost an arm at the Four Days Fight in 1666, and thus is probably the 'person of quality and wit whose arm was shot of 5 or 6 years ago' whom Boyle interviews in 21-413. See Robert Latham and William Mathews (eds), The Diary of Samuel Pepys (11 vols., London, 1970-83), x, p. 189.

Hollier, Thomas (1609-90): London surgeon specialising in lithotomy. He operated on Samuel Pepys for the stone in 1658, and is mentioned in 21-237 and 24-4. See Robert Latham and William Mathews (eds), The Diary of Samuel Pepys (11 vols., London, 1970-83), x, p. 189.

Holmes, Sir Robert (1622-92): admiral. He led expeditions to West Africa in 1660-1 and 1663-4. He may be the 'famous Sea Commander who had been upon the African Coast' who tells Boyle about conditions 'in that excessively hot Climate' in 21-311. It is possible that 21-311 is referring to Sir Thomas Allin, who led expeditions to the north African coast in 1663-5.

Holstein, Christian Albert (died 1694), Duke of: chemical virtuoso. Boyle refers to him in Certain Physiological Essays as 'the Learned Prince and great Chymist' ( Works, ii, 189). However, Christian Albert did not become Duke of Holstein until 1659, and the character mentioned in Workdiary 9 could possibly be Frederick, Christian Albert's father, who was Duke of Holstein at the time the workdiary was written and whose account of his embassy to Muscovy and Persia, written up by Adam Olearius in 1656, Boyle frequently made use of, for example in Usefulness II, Sect. 1 ( Works, iii, 301; see also Works, iv, 85, 394).

Hooke, Robert (1635-1703): Hooke worked as Boyle's assistant in the late 1650s, and later became Curator of Experiments to the Royal Society. Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26.

How, William (1620-56): botanist and physician. He was not a MD, but he studied medicine at Oxford and practised medicine in London. Anthony Wood( Athenæ Oxonienses, Philip Bliss (ed), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20) iii, 418-9), says he was commonly called Dr Howe and was a noted herbalist. Recipes from him are given in Workdiary 13 and 14-14. He may possibly also be the botanist consulting with Boyle in 19-25 and 26.

Howard, Philip Thomas (1629-94): younger brother of the patron of the Royal Society, Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk, and a Catholic priest. He was chaplain to Queen Catherine Braganza from 1662, and in 1665 was made her grand almoner. Mentioned in 21-707.

Hubbart/Hubbard, Gabriel (fl. 1650-89): London surgeon and medic. This is probably the Dr Hubart mentioned in 37-88b. P. J. and R. W. Wallis, Eighteenth Century Medics (2nd edition, Newcastle on Tyne, 1988), p. 305

Hussey, William (c. 1639-91): Levant Company merchant and subsequently ambassador to the Ottoman Empire 1690-1. He was at one time a factor in Aleppo. Sonia P. Anderson, An English Consul in Turkey (Oxford, 1984), p. 254; D. B. Horn, (ed), British Diplomatic Representatives 1689-1789 Camden Society, third series, vol. XLVI, (1932), p. 150. This is possibly the 'intelligent Merchant' referred to in 36-14. For his connection with Boyle see Boyle to Narcissus Marsh. 28 November 1685 and Hussey to Boyle, 8 May [1686].

Hutchinson, Samuel: citizen and ironmonger of London. In 1676 he received a patent for his method of smelting lead using coal. However George Villiers, Viscount Grandison (1617-92), challenged the patent. Boyle arbitrated an agreement between Hutchinson and Grandison, one of the articles of which was that Hutchinson was to satisfy Boyle that his method was genuine (See Correspondence, v, 70-2). Hutchinson may be the 'Mr Hn' who appears in 19-34, and is very probably the 'Mr Hutchinson; in 19-65.

Imperato, Ferrante (d. 1625): Italian naturalist, Del l' Historia Naturale . . . libri XXVIII ( 1599), cited in 22-118 and 22-199.

Inchiquin, William O'Brien, 2nd Earl of (1638?-92): his father, Murrough O'Brien (1614-74), 1st Earl of Inchiquin, was appointed governor of that part of Catalonia that was occupied by the French in 1654, during the 1625-59 war between France and Spain. William appears to have spent most of his early life with his father in foreign military service in France or Spain, so it is very likely that he is the 'noble & inquisitive Person' who 'some years since being upon the borders of Catalonia' in 21-621. In addition, he married Lady Margaret Boyle, Orrery's daughter, and thus was in Boyle's extended family network.

Ingrassia, Giovanni Filippo: physician, whose work Quaestio de purgatione per medicamentum atque de sanguinis missione ( 1568), or perhaps one of his other medical works, is referred to by Severino in 22-59.

Izadora: virtuous Roman woman, daughter of Blacius (enemy of Pacuvius), lover of Perolla; character in Parthenissa. Referred to in 4-32, 35, 115, 117, 120, 121, 122, 128, 129, 145, 150, 161. 193, 203, 216, 240, 245, 251.

J., L. Monsieur: Referred to in 21-270, 271. Not identified.

Jackson, Dr William, of Nantwich: salt wich owner. In 1669 Some inquiries concerning the salt springs and ways of salt making at Nantwich, in Cheshire, answered by Wm. Jackson, M.D appeared in Phil. Trans.. Thus it is likely that this is the 'eminent virtuoso that is master of a salt worke in Cheshier' Boyle mentions in 21-397. See Albert F. Calvert, Salt in Cheshire ( 1915), pp. 85-91.

James II (1633-1701): King of England, 1685-88.

Jobson, Richard: employed by a group of merchants searching for trading opportunities in west Africa, he sailed 150 miles up the river Gambia in 1620-1. The passage in 22-103 comes from Samuel Purchas's condensed version of Jobson's account of the expedition, which was originally published as The Golden Trade ( 1623), although Purchas may have been using Jobson's original manuscript. The Golden Trade has been most recently republished in The Discovery of River Gambra by Richard Jobson (1623), Hakluyt Society, 3rd Series, 2, ( 1999), pp. 75-184; the passage from which this extract is taken is on pp. 92-4.

Jones, Basset (c. 1614-59): physician and grammarian. He studied medicine at Leyden, and possibly received a MD at Franeker, as he was generally described as Doctor after his return. R. W. Innes Smith, English Speaking Students of Medicine at the University of Leyden (Edinburgh, 1932), p. 129.

Jones, Frances (1639-72): the youngest of Lady Katherine Ranelagh's three daughters. She is presumably Boyle's 'younger neece' mentioned in 26-8,9. Correspondence, i, 75.

Joubert, Laurent (1529-82): French doctor and author, whose books included De peste liber unus; De quartana febre; De paralysi ( 1567). Referred to in 22-129.

Justinian (483-565): East Roman emperor, mentioned in 22-186.

K.: Unidentified romance character. Referred to in 4-78.

King, Sir Edmund (1929-1709): physician, knighted and sworn a physician to the King in 1676, FRS 1666. His 'purging water' is mentioned in 38-80b[17].

King, John: of the Inner Temple, knighted 1674. See Works, xiv, 19-20. This is the Mr King mentioned in 22-69a.

Kircher, Athanasius (1602-80): Jesuit natural philosopher and professor of oriental languages at Würzburg and at Collegio Romano, China monumentio, quà sacris quà profanis, nec non varius naturae & artis spectaculis, aliarumque verum memonablium argumentis illustrata ( 1667). Quoted in 22-100.

Knox, Robert (1641-1720): author and sea captain. Wrote An Historical Relation of the Islands of Ceylon ( 1681), which was based on his observations during his many years of captivity there (1660-79). After his escape from the island he was appointed by the East India Company captain of the Tonquin Merchant in 1681. Consequently he is probably the C. K. mentioned in 36-6, 7, 10 and the Captain Knox in 36-15. In 1684 he was sent to Madagascar to procure slaves for St Helena (which trip he may be describing in 36-10, 15 and 114). The voyage described in 36-93 and 96 took place in 1686-9, when he sailed to the Persian gulf and then to Bombay. Robert Knox An Historical Relation of Ceylon (ed) S. D. Saparamadu, (Ceylon, 1958), pp. viii-xxx.

Krieckman, Michael: referred to in 22-136 but not identified.

Küffler, Johannes Sibertus (1595-1677): inventor and projector. Son-in-law to Cornelius Drebbel, who developed a perpetual motion machine and rudimenatary type of submarine for James I, Küffler was himself renowned for the technique of dyeing scarlet he learned from his father-in-law. However the reference to 'Dr Kuffler' in 12-4 could also possibly refer to one of Johann's brothers, Abraham or Jacob, all of whom promoted Drebbels's inventions after his death, and one of whom, Abraham, also married one of Drebbel's daughters.

L.: Unidentified romance character. Referred to in 4-195.

La Calprenède, Gaultier de Costes de, Cassandre ( 1642 and subsequent editions to 1666). This work is a chivalric romance set in ancient Greece and Persia. Virtually all of the aphorisms in French in Workdiaries 1 and 2 come from this work; those in Workdiary 2 appear to come specifically from Bk. I.

Laet, Jan de (1593-1649): Flemish geographer and director of the West India Company, Novus orbis, seu Desciptionis Indiae occidentalis libri XVIII ( 1633). Boyle quotes from this work in 22-76.

Lambert, Cesar: traveller, whose travels to north Africa are recounted in Relation du sieur Cesar Lambert de Marseille de ce qu'il a veu de plus remarquable au Caire, Alexandrie & autres villes d'Egypte és années 1627, edited and published in Claude Barthélemy Morisot's collection of travellers' accounts. Quoted in 22-109, 110 [also 111?].

Lamed, Zedi: conjuror esteemed among the Moors. Referred to in 22-158.

Lana-Terzi, Francesco (1631-87): Italian mathematician, Prodromo, overo saggio di acune inventioni nuove premesso all' Arte Maestra, opera che prepara ( 1670), quoted in 22-175, 176 and also 177 to 181.

Langhorne, Sir William (1629-1715): created baronet in 1668, governor of Madras 1672-8. He is mentioned in 21-365. Henry Davison Love, Vestiges of Old Madras (4 vols., London 1913), iii, p. 544.

Las Casas, Bartholomew de (1474-1566): Spanish missionary to South America, author of Brevissima relaciÓn de la destruycÍon de las Indias ( 1552). The extracts on 22-190, 197a are from the version published by Purchas, which itself is extracted from the English edition of the work, The Spanish colonie, or briefe chronicle of the acts and gestes of the Spaniardes in the West Indies (London, 1583).

Lauremberg, Peter (1585-1639): German anatomist and botanist, Horticultura, libris II, comprehensa ( 1631). This work is quoted in 22-20, 21, 24, 26.

Lawrence, Mrs.,: referred to in 24-4 as a purveyor of medications but not otherwise identified.

Le Roy, Henrik (1598-1679): Dutch physician, MD Padua 1623, professor of Medicine at Utrecht where he taight theoretical medicine and botany. He also published on medicine and was one of the leading exponents and advocates of Descartes's thought. A recipe of his is in 17-2. See G.A.Lindeboom, Dutch Medical biography: a Biographical Dictionary of Dutch Physicians and surgeons, 1475-1975 (Amsterdam, 1984), cols. 1604-5.

Leo, Emperor: Referred to in 22-176. This could possibly be either Leo I 'The Great' (c.401-474) or Leo II (c.467-474).

Leopold I (1640-1705):King of Hungary, 1655-87 and Holy Roman Emperor, 1658-1705. His gold mines are mentioned by Edward Browne in 21-369.

Leopold de Medici (1617-75): younger son of Grand Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany and brother of Ferdinando II of Tuscany, made Cardinal in 1667. He was a patron of science, a founder of the Academia del Cimento in 1657, and is mentioned, with another Italian scientific organization, the Lincean Academy in 21-262.

Liddel, Duncan (1561-1613): of Aberdeen, Doctor of Medicine and Philosophy. Appointed higher professor of mathematics at the Academia Julia in Helmstadt in 1594 where he taught geometry, astronomy, and universal geography. Author of Ars Medica, succincte et perspicue explicata ( 1607). His De febribus libri tres ( 1610) is quoted in 22-129.

Ligon, Richard (c. 1620-?) A true & exact History of the Island of Barbadoes ( 1657). Extracts from this work are in 22-41, 22-7.

Lincean Academy: 'The Academy of the Lynx', the first modern scientific academy. It was founded in Rome in 1603 by Cesi Federico (1585-1630). This organziation is mentioned, with one of its patron, Leopold de Medici in 21-262.

Lincoln, Edward Clinton or Fiennes, 5th Earl of (died 1692): Boyle's informant in 36-106.

Linschoten, Jan Hugh van (1563-1611): Dutch voyager. Mentioned in 28-1002.

Locatelli, Luigi (d. 1637): divulged a famous medicine known as 'Lucatella's Balsam' in his Theatro d'arcani ( 1644). Boyle refers to the use of this for the King's Evil 'in the Hospital', by which he may mean St Bartholomew's in 34-89.

Longueville, William (1639-1721): clerk in chancery and friend of the writer Samuel Butler. Possibly the ' Mr Longuevil' mentioned in 37-24.

Lower, Richard (1631-91): physician, born in Tremeere near Bodmin in Cornwall. Thus he may be the 'Cornish physician' Boyle mentions in 21-301 and is almost certainly Boyle's informant 'Dr L' in 21-545.

Lucilius, Gaius (c. 180-102 BC): Latin satirical poet. Possibly the Lucilius mentioned in 22-139

Lull, Ramon (c. 1232-1316): Catalan encyclopedist. This may be the Lully mentioned in 24-9.

Lynch, Sir Thomas (1633-84): governor of Jamaica. He served as a soldier in the expedition which captured Jamaica in 1655. Back in England in 1660, he returned to the island in 1661. In December 1662 he was made colonel of one of the militia regiments raised in the island and he was president of the council of Jamaica and de facto governor in 1664. He was in England 1665-71, knighted in 1670 and returned to Jamaica as lieutenant governor 1671-75 and subsequently governor 1682-4. He provides Boyle with accounts of natural phenomena in the West Indies in Workdiary 21 and elsewhere. He could be the ' The eminentest Person of one of our cheife Plantations' referred to in 21-330, who gives Boyle information about silk cotton trees, these were to be found in Jamaica in the seventeenth century (see 36-87). Frank Cundall, Governors of Jamaica in the Seventeenth Century (London, 1936), pp. 31-55.

Lysimachus: A Macedonian general under Alexander the Great, later king of Thrace, heroic character in Cassandre. Referred to in: 1-205, 261.

Lyttelton (or Littleton), Sir Charles (1629-1716): Governor of Jamaica. He first went to Jamaica in 1662 as lieutenant governor. He left the island in May 1664. He appears in 21-287. He could also be the ' observing Gentleman that comes from Jamaica', mentioned in 36-17.

Macedo, Ferdinando de: a former Portuguese priest. In 1664 he was at Christchurch College Oxford. This may be the Macedo mentioned in 21-594. Andrew Clark (ed), The Life and Time of Anthony Wood (5 vols., Oxford, 1891-1900), II, 13.

Maier, Michael (1568-1662): German alchemist and Rosicrucian, physician in the ordinary to Rudolf II. 'M.M' in 16-10 may refer to this person.

Manardus, Joannes (1462-1536), whose work Epistolae Medicinales in quibus multa recentiorum errata et antiquorum decreto reservantus ( 1521), or perhaps one of his other medical works, is made reference to by Severino in 22-59.

Manasse: Referred to in 22-176 but not identified.

Manning, Margaret: mentioned in 26-7 as 'my sisters Woman' i.e., a servant of Lady Ranelagh, but not otherwise traced.

Manrique, Padre Maestro Fray Sebastien (d. 1669): Portuguese priest and traveller. He took orders in Goa in 1604 and worked as a missionary in various parts of the east. He was murdered in London by his servant. He may be the 'Father M.' who provides Boyle with accounts of phenomena in the East Indies in Workdiary 21. C. Eckford Luard (ed), Travels of Fray Sebastien Manrique 1629-1643 2 vols, Publications of the Hakluyt Society, 2nd Series, 59 and 61 ( 1927), i, pp. xxvii-xxix.

Marcellinus, Ammianus (330-395): Roman historian, author of the Res Gestae Divi Augustae. Quoted in 22-126.

Martens, Fredrick (1635-99): surgeon of Hamburg. He is Boyle's informant in 36-91, 94-5, 97-8. He wrote an account of a voyage to Spitzbergen and Greenland, which he made in 1671 as ships surgeon, called Spitzbeergische und Grönländishce Reisebeschreibung (1675). Greenland measures c. 836,327 square miles or 2,166,086 square kilometres. The Île de Ré, a French island in the bay of Biscay, measures 33 square miles or 85 square kilometres.

Mascarenha, Dom Felipe: Viceroy of Goa, 1645-51. Renowned for his wealth and quantity of diamonds, one of which is mentioned in 21-602.

Mason, Mathew: goldsmith resident in Foster Lane in the City of London 1641-1703. This may be the 'M. M.' referred to in 32-7. Sir Ambrose Heal, The London Goldsmiths 1200-1800: A Record of the Names and Addresses of the Craftsmen Their Shop-Signs and Trade-Cards (Cambridge, 1935, reprinted 1972), p. 202.

Massanissa: virtuous North African Prince, allied with Rome and eventually King of Numidia, admirer of Sophonisba; character in Parthenissa. Referred to in 4-195, 205.

Matton, Mr.: mentioned in 38-103 in connection with his vinegar.

Maule, James: a Scottish entrepreneur involved in diving for salvage purposes at Stockholm in 1663 and in Tobermory Bay, off the Isle of Mull, in 1665. The letter dated 22 August 1665 quoted in 22-69 is almost certainly from him.

May, Edward (fl. 1636): Physician who taught physiology and anatomy at Sir Francis Kynaston's academy, the Musaeum Minvervae, which lasted from about 1636 to 1642. He may be the 'Dr May' who provides a recipe for the separation of gold from tin in 18-31. However, it is not known if he was ever in Rome or could have had access to the Pope's laboratory. See Great Instauration, 218.

Mayerne, Sir Théodore Turquet de (1573-1655): physician, MD 1597 Montpellier. His Paracelsian medical views were violently attacked by the College of Physicians in Paris, but found favour in England where in 1611 he was appointed physician to James I, and later to his son Charles I. He was one of the most famous physicians of his time, with a thriving practice among the elite, as can be seen by the intended recipients of his recipes in Workdiary 10. Indeed, almost all of the recipes in Workdiary 10 derive from him.

Maynard, Sir John (1602-90): lawyer-politician. Sergeant-at-law from 1654. He was born in Devon and retained strong connections with that county throughout his life. His lead ore is mentioned in 37-90a.

Me., Mr de.: Referred to in 10-25 but not identified.

Medici, Ferdinando II de, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1610-70): son of Cosimo II de Medici and holder of this title from 1621. Both he and his brother Leopold were keenly interested in the new science, and were active experimenters. A menstruum attributed to Ferdinando is discussed in 12-42 and his burning glass in 21-662. In 1657 he was a founder and patron of the Accademia del Cimento, but his activity in it steadily declined as his brother Leopold took over the encouragement of scientific work in Tuscany. See W. E. Knowles Middleton, The Experimenters: A Study of the Accademia Del Cimento (Baltimore, 1971), pp. 17, 20-2.

Meesters, Willem: controller general of the Dutch and English artillery under William III. Possibly the Mr Miston mentioned in 36-116. Stephen B. Baxter William III (London, 1966), p. 283.

Memnon: Persian military leader, fought against Alexander in Asia Minor, character in Cassandre. Referred to in 1-74.

Mercouer, Monsieur de.: Referred to in 22-133. Not identified.

Mercurialis, Hieronymus (possibly Girolamo Mercuriale) (1530-1606): Italian physician and scholar, De venenis et morbis venenosis ( 1584). Cited in 22-106.

Merrett, Christopher: physician, FRS. He is probably the 'Dr M.' mentioned in 21-204.

Mersenne, Marin (1588-1648): French natural philosopher, Harmonicorum libri XII in quibus agitur de sonorum natura, causis et effectibus ( 1635). Several extracts from this work appear in 22-50, 51, 53-7, 116.

Mesuë, Johannes (Yuhanna ibn Musawayh) (9th century): Arab physician, taught at Bagdad and was physician to Haroun al Rashid and his heir Al Mamoun. In 22-59, Boyle quotes from a work by Severino where he (Severino) refers to Mondino's commentary on Mesuë's medical writings.

Mezeray, François Eudes de (1610-83): French historian, A General Chronological History of France translated by John Bulteel, ( 1683). The passage in 36-22 consists of two extracts from p. 536 of this work, although there is an omitted passage, replaced in this extract by '&c'.

Michell, Andrew (d. before 1689): captain in the Royal Navy in 1677. David Syrett and R. L. DiNardo, Commissioned Sea Officers of the Royal Navy 1660-1815 Navy Records Society Occasional Publication, vol 1, ( 1994), p. 309. This may be the Michel mentioned in 36-73. There was no Commissioner of the Navy of that name at this date.

Milne, John: A servant of Boyle's, referred to in memoranda for his Will in 33-26, and in his Will: 'Life of Boyle', p. 262.

Moderatus, J. C.: Cited in 22-48 but not identified.

Molines, James (1628-86): London surgeon, in 1663 he was elected, on recommendation from Charles II, surgeon of St Thomas' Hospital London for ordinary avocations and joint surgeon with Hollier for cutting the stone. Subsequently surgeon in ordinary to Charles II and James II. Mentioned in 24-4.

Monardes, Nicolas Bautista (c. 1493-1588): Spanish physician and writer on America, De Simplicibus Medicamentis ex occidentali India delatis ( 1574). Boyle quotes from this work in 22-78 and probably continues to quote from it in 22-79,-82. It is made reference to by another author in 22-71.

Mondino dei Luzzi (Latin form: Mondinus) (died 1326): Italian physician and anatomist, taught at the University of Bologna, and produced works on anatomy based on his dissections. In 22-59, Boyle cites from a work by Severino where he (Severino) makes reference to an edition of Mondino's commentary on the work of Mesuë, Mesue cum expositione Mondini super canones universales, ac etiam expositione Chrisifori de Honestis, published in Venice in 1502.

Montanari, Geminiano (1632-87): astronomer of the Medicis in Florence and Dukes of Modena, professor of Mathematics at Bologna, Ephemenis Lansbergiana ad annum 1666, item de solis hypotheubur et refractionibus siderun. Quoted in 22-187-8[?], which are repeated in 198-9.

Montanus, Giovanni Battista (c.1488-1551): Italian physician and classics writer. This may be the Johannes Montanus mentioned in 22-207.

Montanus, Johannes: German medical doctor (c.1531-1604), author of Tractat von der terra sigillata. Quoted in 22-205.

Moray, Sir Robert (1608-73): Scottish courtier, Lord of Exchequer for Scotland, one of the most active members of the Royal Society in its early years. This is probably 'R.M.' to whom Boyle refers in 21-388. Royal Society, 134.

More, William (died 1657): lived in Burghope in Herefordshire. He appears in entry 15-37. See John Duncomb and William Henry Cooke, collections towards the History and Antiquities of the county of Hereford (5 vols., London, 1804-1912), iv, 173.

Morellus, Johannes: French physician, whose work De febre purpurata epdiemiæ, & pestilenti (2nd edn., 1654), is referred to by Diemerbroeck in 22-129 (see also Works, x, 335.

Moretus, Theodorus (1602-67): Jesuit natural philosopher from Antwerp, Tractatus physico-mathematicus de æstu maris ( 1665). This work is quoted in 22-108.

Moriaen, Johannes (or Morian) (c.1591-c.1668): German natural philosopher and minister. He settled in the Dutch Netherlands in 1638 and and it was from there that he corresponded frequently with Samuel Hartlib and his associates in England. He appears never to have come to England himslef, though. A few recipes in Workdiary 7 and 12-57 and [71a] are credited to him. Moriaen.

Morin, Jean Baptiste (15683-1656): French natural philosopher. Boyle refers to his work in 21-421.

Morison, Dr Robert (1620-83): botanist and physician, MD Angers 1648. He was keeper of the Duke of Orleans' garden at Blois in the 1650s. After the restoration he was appointed senior physician to Charles II, king's botanist and superintendent of the royal gardens, from 1671 professor of botany at Oxford. He is Boyle's informant in 23-70, 75, and 32-3,4.

Morisot, Claude Barthélemy (1592-1661): French writer and scholar, editor of Relations veritables et curieuses de l'isle de Madagascar et du Brésil ( 1651), which contains works by François Cauche and Cesar Lambert. This work is quoted in 22-104, 109-110, 112.

Morland, Sir Samuel (1625-95): diplomat, mathematician and inventor. This may be the 'ingenious Teacher of Mathematicks' referred to in 36-4. Evelyn saw his fire engine on 1 July 1667, E. S. De Beer (ed.), The Diary of John Evelyn (6 vols, Oxford, 1955), III, p. 488. On 11 October 1660 Pepys saw several fire engines being demonstrated in St James's Park (possibly before the King?), the only one he mentions specifically was that of Ralph Greatorex. Robert Latham and William Mathews (eds), The Diary of Samuel Pepys (11 vols., London, 1970-83), I, pp. 263-4.

Morton, William Douglas (1582-1650), Earl of: supporter of Charles I in Scotland. This figure is probably the 'Lord Morton' who appears as a recipient of Mayerne's prescription in 10-2, as he would have been the Earl of Morton during the time of Mayerne's active medical practice. He was not, however, Lord Morton at the time Boyle composed this workdiary; another William Douglas, the subject of this entry's grandson, held the title in 1654.

Murat, Johannes von (1645-1733): Informant about the mogol. Referred to in 22-183.

Musgrave, Mr.: referred to by Elizabeth Rose in 22-72. Not identified.

N.,N.: a friend of Boyle's who conducted experiments on hatching hen's eggs artificially (21-390, 612). This may or may not be the same person as the 'N.N. a Person of great Experience in minerals & stones' referred to in 21-303, the 'N.N.' who gives chymical information in 21-519, or the 'N.N.' whose 'famous medicine for coughs & colds' is identified in 23-59.

Narborough, Sir John (1640-88): member of the commission which replaced the Navy Board in 1686-8. Mentioned in 36-74. J. M. Collinge, Navy Board Officials 1660-1832 (London, 1978), p. 125.

Neale, Samuel (died c. 1693): scale maker. Probably the Mr Neal mentioned in 36-66, 67. Gloria Clifton, Dictionary of British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550-1851 (London, 1995), p. 197; Marc Fitch, Index to Testamentary Records in the Archdeaconry Court of London Now Preserved in the Guildhall Library London (2 vols., London, 1979-85), II, p. 129.

Nechepso: an Egyptian pharaoh of c.600 BC, whose purported vision formed the basis of an astrological work of the 2nd century BC which was frequently cited by classical authors such as Pliny the Elder in his Historia naturalis.. Boyle cites the passage quoted in 40-2 in his Medicinal Experiments (1692-4) Works, xii, 209n.

Neck, Jacob van (1564-1638): commander of early Dutch expeditions to the east. The passage in 22-155 is an extract from his journal published by Samuel Purchas.

Needham, Jasper (or Casper) (c. 1623-79): London physician, MD Cambridge 1657, FRS 1661. He is probably the 'J.N.' Boyle mentions in 21-580. He may also be the 'Dr N' mentioned in 35-12. Royal Society, 150.

New England Company: Boyle was Governor of the Corporation for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England from 1662 to 1689. Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26.

Newman, Richard: Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26, and also in connection with Boyle's Stalbridge estates in a letter of the 1650s ( Correspondence, i, 262).

Newcastle, William Cavendish, 1st Earl of (1592-1676): landed magnate, courtier and Royalist General in the Civil War. In his subsequent continental exile he may have encountered Kenelm Digby. Certainly 'the Earl of Newcastle's menstruum' is mentioned in one of the recipes ascribed to Digby in Workdiary 13 (13-7).

Nicholls, John: Boyle's steward at Stalbridge. Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26.

Nixon, John (c.1623-92): Governor the Hudson Bay colony from 1679 to 1683. His observations are recorded in 36-27,-33. He may also be the 'intelligent man' mentioned in 36-53, and is probably the 'Governour of Hudsons Bay' mentioned in 36-59. Boyle was a member of the Hudson Bay Company and the original of Nixon's long dispatch of 1682 to the council of the Hudson's Bay Company is in BP 40: 16-46.

Nonnius, Louis Nunez (b. 1560): physician and antiquary of Antwerp. A story from him is recounted (Boyle's own source is unidentified) in 22-62.

Nydermaier, Franciscus: author cited in 22-83, 84. Not identified.

Oldenburg, Henry (c. 1618-77): Secretary to the Royal Society from 1662 and a frequent correspondent with Boyle. 32-8 is an extract from a letter from Thomas Henshaw to Oldenburg. Royal Society, 140.

Olearius (or oehlchlæger), Adam (c. 1600-71): German traveller and orientalist, who wrote the account of the Duke of Holstein's embassy to Muscovy and Persia, Relation du voyage de Muscovie. A recipe of his is translated (by Clodius) in 12-51.

Orléans, Gaston, Duke of Orléans (1608-60): younger brother of Louis XIII of France. He was continuously involved in plots against Cardinal Richelieu for which he was eventually banished to a retired life at Blois after 1642. His physic garden and chief gardener at Blois, Dr Robert Morison, are mentioned in 32-3 and 32-4.

Oronte: Suitor of Statira, amorous character in Cassandre. Referred to in 2-43, 46.

Oroondate: The prince of Scythia, brother of Berenice; heroic character in Cassandre. Referred to in 1-149, 169, 203, 220, 224, 2-60.

Orrery, Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of (and Baron Broghill) (1621-79): Robert's older brother, statesman, military commander and playwright. He saw active service during the Civil War on the Royalist side, but during the Interregnum became one of the Protectorate's leading agents in Ireland. He was instrumental in returning Ireland to monarchical rule in 1660. He was also a poet and playwright, and most of the aphorisms in Workdiary 4 appear to be from his works (as evidenced by the occasional marginal note 'Lord Br' or 'B', for 'Broghill', which title he held at the time the workdiary was compiled). Most of the aphorisms probably derive from an early version of his Parthenissa, whose first part was published in 1651, and later completed in 1669. He also, now as the Earl of Orrery (created 1660), recounts to Boyle some natural phenomena in Ireland in 21-709, 710.

Orta, Garcia de (Latin form: Garcias ab Horto) (c. 1500-c. 1568): Portuguese pharmacology writer, physician working and living in Goa, whose work Colloquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinair da India ( 1563), translated into Latin as Aromatum, et simplicium aliquot medicamentorum apud Indos nascentium historia ante biennium quidem Lusitanica lingua (Antwerp, 1567), is referred to in 22-71.

Oviedo y Valdez, Gonzalo Hernandez de (1478-1557): Spanish historian, author of Summario de la historia general y natural de las Indias occidentales ( 1535). Boyle refers to his work in 21-372. The extract from this work in 22-75 is from the translation published by Samuel Purchas.

Oxinarte: Father of Roxane, character in Cassandre. Referred to in 1-70, 113.

P.P.,: 'the Portugais', who is linked with 'Don P.M. the Vice-roy of the Portugall Indies'. See 21-548, 550, 21-556. See also 21-549 and possibly also 21-431 and 21-602.

Panciroli, Guido (1523-99): Italian jurist and scholar, possibly the 'Pancyrolus' mentioned in 27-17.

Paracelsus, Theophrastus Philippus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim (c. 1493-1541): iatrochemist and author of numerous medical works critical of the prevalent Galenic orthodoxy. Mentioned in 21-512, 22-71, 31-,1,2, 35-50. Boyle refers to his followers ('Paracelsians') in 28-941. There is also a deleted reference to 'Paracelsus's metal' in 34-27 and a reference to 'Vinetum Paracelsi' in 35-52.

Paré, Ambrose (1510?-90): French surgeon and royal physician for Henri II, Francis II, Charles IX and Henri III of France. His Des monstres et prodiges first appeared in Paré's Deux Livres de chirurgie ( 1573). An English translation of Paré's works was first published in 1634, and Boyle may be quoting from this in 22-60. In addition, his Opera chirurgica( 1594) is quoted in 22-129.

Parisatis: A daughter of the Persian king Darius, sister of Statira/Barsine; character in Cassandre.

Parkinson, John, apothecary and herbalist, Theatrum Botanicum: the Theater of Plants. ( 1640). Boyle refers to p. 1297 in 17-16, which page is in Chapter LIV, Fructices Coralloides sive Coralline fruticantes. Shrub Corallines. The page itself contains descriptions of several types of corals.

Parma, Alessandro Farnese, Duke of (1545-92): soldier and statesman, Governor General of the Netherlands. This is presumably the Prince Alexander, mentioned in 22-204.

Parrick, Andrew (died before 24 March 1675): East India seaman. He was captain of the Zant sent by the East India Company to India in 1669. Returning to the Downs on 27 June 1671, he left for the East Indies again in November 1671, where he died. He supplies Boyle with accounts of phenomena in the East Indies in 21-636,-44 and elsewhere. Anthony Farrington, A Catalogue of East India Company Ships' Journals and Logs 1600-1834 (London, 1999), p. 724; Ethel Bruce Sainsbury (ed), A Calendar of the Court Minutes etc of the East India Company 1674-6 (Oxford, 1935), p. 172.

Parrick, Captain N.: see 21-635 etc. Apparently an older relative of Andrew Parrick; in 21-645, the '2 Capt. Ps' are referred to.

Parthenissa: daughter of Miraxtorses, general of Parthia; eponymous heroine, beloved of Artabbanes, of Roger Boyle’s romance.

Pascot, Antoine (c. 1646-89): one of two French missionaries to Siam, who, with Bénigne Vachet, accompanied an embassy sent by the King of Siam to France. In 1684 an ambassador who was part of the embassy to France visited England. It appears from the entry in 36-79 that one of the missionaries accompanied the ambassador and met Boyle. John Anderson, English Intercourse with Siam in the Seventeenth Century (London, 1890), p. 243; E. S. De Beer (ed.), The Diary of John Evelyn (6 vols, Oxford, 1955), IV, p. 388. Tommaso Nappo Index Biographique Français (2nd edition, 7 vols., Munchen, 1998), VI, p. 2561.

Patieri, Francesco: described as 'chirurgion' when referred to in 22-132, but not otherwise identified.

Pelagius, Dr., and his 'tirsus': Referred to in 23-32 but not identified.

Pembroke, Philip Herbert, 5th Earl of (1621-69): member of the Council of State during the Interregnum. He succeeded as fifth Earl of Pembroke in 1650. A recipe is attributed to him in Workdiary 9.

Pepys, Samuel (1633-1703): naval administrator and renowned diarist. Secretary of the Admiralty 1684-9. Mentioned in 36-73, 75.

Perdiccas: Macedonian general in Alexander's army, character in Cassandre. Referred to in 1-291.

Perolla: gallant Roman hero, son of Pacuvius (enemy of Blacius), lover of Izadora; character in Parthenissa. Referred to in 4-6a, 11, 25, 32, 87, 171, 175, 199, 212, 240, 251.

Petit, Pierre (1598-1677): French engineer and astronomer, FRS 1667, Dissertations académiques sur la nature du froid et du chaud, avec un discours sur la construction et l'usage d'un cylindre arithmétique, inventé par la mesme autheur ( 1671). Quoted in 22-192.

Petr., Capt.: an East India captain. Referred to in 21-649, 652.

Petre, William (1622-84), Lord: his brother Thomas (1633-1707), married Mary (died 1730), daughter of Sir Thomas Clifton, bart. He may be the 'Lord P.' Boyle mentions in Workdiary 21.

Philaretus: from the Greek meaning 'lover of virtue', mentioned in 28-811. Boyle frequently uses this word as a name for himself. Works, v, 95.

Philoponus: mentioned in 28-811, from the Greek meaning 'lover of work'; Boyle uses the term as a name for one of the interlocutors in the Sceptical Chemist. Works, ii, 207.

Plato (427-348/347): Greek philosopher, mentioned in 22-65

Pliny the elder (23-79): author of Historia naturales. He is referred to in 12-90 and in 22-17.

Polemann, Joachim: author of Novum lumen medicum (1659), who was in England in the 1650s. A recipe of his is in 17-7. See Great Instauration, 78, 304. He is also mentioned by Hartlib in his letter to Boyle of 29 November 1659 ( Correspondence, i, 393).

Polier de Bottens, Etienne (died 1711): perhaps the ' Monsr. Paulier' mentioned in 24-3. He came from a Huguenot family which emigrated to Switzerland in the 1550s and was at one time in the service of the Elector of the Palatinate, he subsequently corresponded with Boyle. Correspondence, v, 370

Proud (or Prowd), Captain John: East India captain. He commanded East India Company ships in eastern waters in the 1630s and 1640s and was the company's surveyor of shipping in the 1660s and 1670s. He is probably the 'Captain Pride' who provides Boyle with accounts of the East Indies in 21-633. See Anthony Farrington, A Biographical Index of the East India Maritime Service Officers 1600-1834 (London, 1999), p. 641; Ethel Bruce Sainsbury (ed), A Calendar of the Court Minutes etc of the East India Company 1686-70 (Oxford, 1929), pp. 56, 323.

Prujean, Dr Francis (died 1666): MD 1625, physician who practised first in Lincoln and subsequently in London. He was President of the Royal College of Physicians, 1650-4. However the figure mentioned in 13-20 could also possibly be his son Thomas (died 1662), physician, MD Franeker.

Ptolemy or Claudius Ptolemaeus (c. 100-70): Egyptian astronomer and geographer. Mentioned in 28-1002.

Purchas, Samuel (1575?-1626): travel writer and editor, Purchas his Pilgrimes (4 vols., 1625) and Purchas his Pilgrimage (4 vols., 1626). Boyle cites quite frequently from this very popular compendium of traveller's accounts, especially in Workdiary 22, as follows:

Pyè Min: King of Pegu, in southern Burma. He reigned from 1661 to 1672. He had a famous diamond which is mentioned in 21-602. See Maung Htin Aung, A History of Burma (New York, 1967), pp. 150-1.

R., Dr.: referred to in 22-58 in connection with a precipitate that he used as a purge, but not otherwise identified.

Radisson, Pierre-Esprit (c. 1636-1710): explorer, employed at differing times by the English and the French. He is probably Boyle's informant in 36-102. The events he is describing probably took place in the early 1650s after he had been captured in Canada by a group of Iroquois Indians and adopted by a prominent family.

Rainbowe, Elizabeth (died 1702): wife of Edward Rainbowe (1608-84), Bishop of Carlisle from 1664 until his death. She is probably the 'Elizabeth R' writing from Rose Castle in 22-72. Rose Castle, in Cumberland, is a residence of the Bishops of Carlisle.

Ranelagh, Katherine Jones (1615-91), Lady: Robert's older sister and wife of Arthur Jones, second Viscount Ranelagh as of 1643. It was probably through her that Boyle first met Samuel Hartlib and his associates, and from 1668 Boyle lived with her in her house in Pall Mall. She appears to have shared many of his scientific and medical interests, and contributed the recipe in 8-14. She is also 'my sister R.' mentioned in 26-3. Boyle died within only a few weeks of her own death in 1691.

Rasch, Erasmus: associate of Samuel Hartlib and Johann Moriaen. Recipes attributed to him are 12-1, 16. Moriaen, 202.

Rawdon, Marmaduke (1610-69): English merchant. He lived in Teneriff 1631-8 and 1639-56. He may be the 'eminent Canary merchant' Boyle refers to in 21-622. See Robert Davies (ed), The Life of Marmaduke Rawdon of York Camden Society, 85, ( 1863), p. xix.

Recchi, Antonio: Italian botanist and physician to Philip II of Spain, whose resumé of the materials on Mexico of Franciscus Hernandez came into the possession of the Lincean Academy: see Works, xiii, 306n. It is possibly this work that is referred to in 22-99 as Lync. Innotaones; see also Fabio Colonna's botanical work Fitobasanos cui accessit vita Fabi et lynceorum notitia, adnotationes in Fitobasanon Jano Planco ariminensi auctore ( 1592).

Redi, Francesco (1626-98): Italian physician and scientist. Boyle refers to his most famous work on poisonous snakes, Osservazioni intorno alle vipere ( 1664) under its Latin title De vipere in 21-263.

Redoneus: Cited in 22-48 but not identified.

Regiomontanus (or Muller), Johannes (1436-76): Mathematician and astronomer. Referred to in 22-176.

Remé, Franck: apothecary who worked for Moriaen and moved to England in 1654, where he subsequently worked for Clodius. Recipes from him are in 12-40, 73 and 96. See Great Instauration, 304; Correspondence, i, 175-6

Riccioli, Giovanni Battista (1598-1671): Italian Jesuit and astronomer, Almagestum Novum tome 1 ( 1651), which is probably the work quoted in 22-156, 157.

Ripley, George (died c. 1490): English divine and alchemist. Possibly the Ripley mentioned in 31-3. His The Compound of Alchemie was first printed in 1591. His works were printed in Latin at Cassel in 1649 and many of the English pieces, including The Compound of Alchemie were printed in Ashmole, Theatrum Chemicum ( 1652). Boyle's correspondent George Starkey was the author of alchemical works which purport to be commentaries on Ripley but do not derive from Ripley in any significant measure. William R. Newman Gehennical Fire: The Lives of George Starkey, an American Alchemist in the Scientific Revolution (Cambridge Mass., 1994), p. 118.

Rivière, Lazare (1589-1655): French physician and author. Source of a recipe in 13-24.

Roche, Garrett: Agent at Lismore for Boyle's brother, the Earl of Burlington. He often acted on behalf of Boyle in relation to his Irish land holdings. Referred to in the accounts in 33-50.

Rochefoucauld, Frédéric Charles de la, Greve de Roye (1633-90): Danish count and officer in the army of King Frederick III of Denmark. In the reign of James II he appears to have settled in England. On 4 July 1687 James II issued a warrant to grant the titles of Baron of Lifford and Earl of Roye in the Irish peerage to Frederick Charles de Roye de la Rochefoucaut, who is presumably this man, although no such titles are recorded in GEC. This is the Comte de Roy whose surgeon is interviewed in 36-71. Laureen Baillie (ed), Scandinavian Biographical Index (4 vols, London, 1994), III, p. 1779. CSPD 1687-9, p. 25.

Rolt, Sir Thomas (c. 1631-1710): chief factor for the East India Company in Persia from 1668-77, then President of the Company's factory at Surat, in western India, from 1678 to 1682. The Chief of the English Factory at Hispahan. e was knighted in 1682. He provides Boyle with accounts of phenomena in Persia in 21-702 (where 'Hispahan' is probably Esfahan or Ispahan in central Iran where he lived in 1670) and 36-92. His observations concerning India are recorded in 36-68. Sir William Foster, The English Factories in India 1668-9 (Oxford, 1927), pp. 15, 214-15; Sir Charles Fawcett, The English Factories in India (The Western Presidency), 1670-7 (Oxford, 1936).

Romanus, Adrianus, also Adriaan van Roomen (1561-1615): Born in Louvain, Belgium, Roomen was professor or mathematics and medicine at Louvain from 1586 to 1592, he then went to Würzburg where again he was professor of medicine. From 1603 to 1610 he lived frequently in both Louvain and Wüburg. He was ordained a priest in 1604. After 1610 he tutored mathematics in Poland. Quoted in 22-176.

Rondelet, Guillaume (1507-66): whose work, Libri de piscibus marinis in quibus verae piscium effegis expressae sunt ( 1555) is referred to by Walton in 22-10.

Ros, M. de.: Referred to in the account of Boyle's charitable expenditure in 33-37, but not otherwise identified.

Royal Society: the earliest British scientific institution, founded in 1660, with which Boyle was closely associated for much of his life. Referred to in connection with the standards of mensuration it established in 30-3.

Roxane: Shrewish widow of Alexander the Great, character in Cassandre.

Ruland, Martin, the younger (1561-1611): chymist and physician to Rudolf II, extracts from whose Lexicon Chymiae (1612) are included in 22-73b, 76b.

Rycaut, Sir Paul (1629-1700): diplomat, traveller and author, F.R.S. 1666. From 1667 to 1678 he was consul for the Levant Company at Smyrna, and his observations there are recorded in 36-23,24. He corresponded with Boyle from 1671. He was knighted in October 1685.

S., Mr.: traveller who visits mines in 'the Mogulls Country'. Referred to in 21-563.

Sabellico, Marcantonio (1436-1606): humanist historian who took over Lorenzo Vallo's lectureship in the studia humanitatis at San Marco in Venice. His magnum opus was the Raposodiae historian Enneadum( 1535). Quoted in 22-191.

St John, Dr John: admiralty judge at Surat in 1684. Possibly the Mr St. John mentioned in 36-79. The degree of Doctor of Civil Law had been conferred on him by the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1681. Sir Charles Fawcett, The English Factories in India, Vol.III(New Series) Bombay, Surat, and Malabar Coast (Oxford, 1954), p. 202; E. H. W. Dunkin, Claude Jenkins and E. A. Fry, Index to the Act Books of the Archbishops of Canterbury 1663-1859 (2 vols., London, 1929-38), II, p. 255.

St Ledger, Anthony: surgeon. Employed by the East India Company on a failed expedition to re-open their trade with Japan in 1673. Having been refused permission to establish a factory the company's ship, the Return, sailed to Macao in China. He is probably Boyle's informant in 36-115. Anthony Farrington, Catalogue of East India Company Ships' Journals and Logs 1600-1834 (London, 1999), p. 559. Roger Machin (ed), Experiment and Return: Documents Concerning the Japan Voyage of the English East India Company 1671-3 (Kyoto, 1978), 63.

Salmon, William (1644-1713): empiric and medical writer. Author of Pharmacopoeia Londinensis: or, The Dispensatory ( 1678). This may be the 'Dispensatory' mentioned by Boyle in 34-41.

Sampieri, Abbat,: Referred to in 22-187, 198 but not otherwise identified.

Sandwich, Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of (1625-72): courtier, virtuoso, naval commander and administrator. He commanded an English fleet off Algiers in 1662 and it is most likely he who gives an account of diving along the African coast in several entries in Workdiary 21. He is described both as an 'eminent & inquisitive person' (21-318) and as 'this Noble Man' (21-320) and it is on these descriptions, particularly the latter, that our identification is based. He certainly gives an account of conditions at Tangier in 21-520. He also later served as Ambassador to Spain, and provides Boyle with accounts of Madrid in 21-522. See Julian S. Corbett, England in the Mediterranean: A Study of the Rise and Influence of British Power within the Straits 1603-1714 (2 vols., London 1964), ii, pp. 24, 25, 42, 47, 49, 70.

Sandy, a black: Mentioned in 22-103.

Saris, John (died 1646): mariner employed by the East India Company. The passage quoted in 22-197b is an extract from Samuel Purchas's edited account of his travels, taken apparently from a private journal kept by Saris of his voyage to Japan in 1611-14 but no longer extant.

Sarotti, Paolo: Venetian resident in England 1675-81. He and his son Giovanni Ambrosio Sarotti established a scientific academy in Venice. Possibly the noble Venetian mentioned in 36-13. Correspondence, v, 168.

Sarotti, Giovanni Ambrosio (died 1733): FRS 1679. Son of Paolo Sarotti. Possibly the noble Venetian mentioned in 36-13. Correspondence, v, 181.

Savonarola, Giovanni Michele (1384-1462): physician, born in Padua. He was a lecturer in Padua in the early 15th Century and then moved to Ferrara 1440s. In 22-59, Boyle quotes a passage from Severinus where he makes reference to Savonarola, probably to one of his medical works.

Scaliger, Julius Caesar (1484-1558), Italian physician and author of works of the classics, botany and natural philosophy, Exotericarum exerctationum Liber quintus decimus ( 1557). The extract in 22-3 is probably taken from Schenck lib. VII, obs. 28. Scaliger is also mentioned in 22-17, 106, 191[?].

Schenck, Johann, Observationum medicarum rariorum libri VII ( 1644), a compendium of medical observations and accounts taken from other authors. Boyle appears to have taken observations from Antonio Benivieni (22-1), Amatus Lusitanus (22-2) and Julius Caesar Scaliger from this work.

Schott, Gaspar (1608-66), Mechanica Hydraulico-Pneumatica ( 1657). Mentioned in 27-17.

Schouten, Willem (1567-1625), The Relation of a Wonderfull Voiage made by W. Cornelison Schouten ( 1619), an English edition of the account of a voyage by the Dutch navigator in 1615-17. Boyle quotes from it in 22-162,-72. His marginal annotations relate to the following pages in the English edition: 22-162 is from p. 29; 22-163 is from p. 31; 22-164 is from p. 38; the endorsement for 22-165 is wrong; 22-166 is from p. 39 and the endorsement is wrong; 22-167 is from p. 44; 22-168 is from pp. 56-7; 22-169 is from p. 65; 22-170 is from p. 71; 22-171 is from p. 71; 22-172 is from p. 81 and the endorsement is wrong.

Schröder, Johann Christian (1600-64): German physician, Pharmacopeia medico-chymica, sive thesæ pharmacologicus ( 1641), a compendium of recipes culled from other sources. This work is quoted in 22-22 and made reference to in 13-26; .

Scipio: Roman general of the Punic War; character in Parthenissa. Referred to in 4-165.

Seleucus: General under Alexander, later king of Syria, character in Cassandre. Referred to in 1-273, 274.

Seneca (c. 4 BC-65 AD): Roman Stoic philosopher, whose Naturales quaestiones (c. 62 AD) is referred to by Diemerbroeck in 22-125.

Sennert, Daniel (1572-1637): physician at Wittenburg, Epitome naturalis scientiae ( 1650). Quoted in 22-205; also mentioned in 22-126.

Senschifer: Author cited in 22-75a. Not identified.

Sepata: Described in 13-9 as 'the famous Mountebank' but not otherwise identified.

Severino, Marco Aurelio (1580-1656): physician at Hospedale di Incurabili at Salerno, and chair of medicine and anatomy at University of Naples, Trimembris chirugia ( 1653), which Boyle quotes from in 22-59. This extract makes reference to many other medical writers of the sixteenth century and earlier, not all of whose works can be traced.

Shannon, Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount (1623-99): Boyle's brother; sixth son of the Earl of Cork. Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26.

Sharpe, Captain Bartholomew: buccaneer. Probably the Captain Sharp mentioned in 36-82. He was in Bermuda in early 1686 where he protected the governor Colonel Richard Coney from the discontent of inhabitants of colony. CSP Col 1685-8, pp. 135, 159.

Shouart, D.: Referred to in 10-3, 5, 17 and 19, but not otherwise identified.

Sinclair, George (died 1696): professor of philosophy and then mathematics at Glasgow, his Ars nova et magna gravitatis et levitatis sive dialogorum philosophicorum libri sex de aeris vera ac reali gravitate ( 1669), quoted in 22-134, 173-4.

Slade, John: went to Madras as masters mate in the Surat Merchant in 1676-7, to Surat as captain of the Unicorn in 1678-9, and to Bantam as captain of the Barnardiston in 1680-2. This may be the 'Captain S:' whose observations on the East Indies are recorded in 36-37,-45. Anthony Farrington, Catalogue of East India Company Ships' Journals and Logs 1600-1834 (London, 1999), pp. 47, 631, 667. However, a 'John Slead of the City of London, mariner' died overseas and had his will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury in 1682. If this John Slead is the same as John Slade then he could not possibly be Boyle's informant.

Slare, Frederic (1648-1727): One-time assistant to Boyle, and later a natural philosopher and doctor in his own right. Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26.

Sloane, Hans (1660-1753): physician, MD Orange 1683, subsequently President of the Royal Society. He was probably Boyle's informant about silk cotton trees in Jamacia recorded in 36-87. He may also be the informant in 36-104. In 1687 he went to Jamaica as physician to the Governor the Duke of Albermarle; he stayed there 15 months, arriving back in London on 29 May 1689. Royal Society, 212.

Smalcadius: A 'Balsam. Sulphuris Smalcaldianus' is referred to in 12-17.

Smart, Thomas: chemical assistant to the Marquis of Dorchester at Vauxhall House. An associate of Samuel Hartlib, he is the major contributor of the recipes in Workdiary 9 (c.1654) and also contributes recipes in Workdiary 12 (1655). See Great Instauration, 304, n. 199.

Smethwick, Francis (dates unknown): library keeper at Westminster and virtuoso, FRS 1667. He provides Boyle with an account of burning glasses in 21-407.

Smith, Captain John (d. 1688): Boyle's agent in Ireland. Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26 and in the accounts in 33-44, 50.

Smith, Mr.: the stone-cutter. Mentioned in 38-50.

Smith (or Smyth), Sir Jeremiah (died 1675): English admiral. He is mentioned in connection with phenomena in the East Indies in 21-525.

Smith, Thomas: this seems the likeliest candidate for the servant of Boyle's who assisted at his experiments 'for the space of twentie year', referred to in 38-88.

Smuckius: Referred to in 17-14. Not identified.

Soolinguen, Dominus van: Referred to in 10-7 but not identified.

Sophonisba: daughter of Asdruball and object of the affections of the Numidian King Syphax, beloved by the virtuous Massanissa; character in Parthenissa. Referred to in 4-205.

Southampton, Thomas Wriothesley, fourth Earl of (1607-67): Lord Treasurer, 1660-67; he died of medication taken for the stone. Mentioned in 24-4 and 6 where he is referred to by his title of Lord Treasurer (abbreviated to 'L. T.'). His London residence, Southampton House, located on the north side of Bloomsbury Square is also there referred to.

Spartacus: Military general, character in Parthenissa. Referred to in 4-230.

Spenser, Dr John (1600-?): physician of Windsor. His 'Arcanum against the King's Evil' is given in 13-18. See John H. Raach, A Direcotry of English Country Physicians, 1603-43 (London, 1962), p. 84.

Spiegel, Adriaan van den (1578-1625): Isagoge in rem herbariam libri duo ( 1606). This work is quoted in 22-23.

Sprat, Thomas (1635-1713): History of the Royal Society ( 1667). This work is mentioned in 27-17.

Stafford, Sir Edward (1552?-1605): Elizabethan diplomat. A recipe attributed to him is in 8-7

Stansby, Mrs.: Referred to in 10-12. Not identified.

Stapel, Joannes Bodaeus de (c. 1602-1635): Dutch physician and botanist. G. A. Lindeboom, Dutch Medical Biography: a Biographical Dictionary of Dutch Physicians and Surgeons 1475-1975 (Amsterdam, 1984), column 1868. This could be the Jo. Bodæ: mentioned in 22-25.

Stapleton, Sir William (d.1686): Governor of the Leeward Islands in the Carribbean from 1672 until his death in 1686.Created baronet in 1679. He is probably the 'Sir W. S.' mentioned in in 36-8, 9. He is alsothe narrator of 36-11,12. CSP Col 1669-74, p. 407.

Starkey, George (or Stirke) (1628-1665): physician and alchemist. Born in Bermuda, he came to England in 1646, where he quickly become associated with Samuel Hartlib and become known to Boyle. A major influence on Boyle's early scientific development, he features heavily in the recipes from the early 1650s, particularly in Workdiary 7 (1651) and 8 (1652), for which he appears to have supplied most of the recipes. In Workdiary 7 he is introduced in the first entry by name, and then he is referred to obliquely in the successive recipes by the Latin 'eiusdem', i.e. 'of the same'. He also appears frequently in Workdiary 12 (1655), where he is referred to as 'Stirke'. See Gehennical Fire and Tried in the Fire.

Statira (or Barsine): A daughter of the Persian king Darius, married to Alexander the Great; noble character in Cassandre. Referred to in 2-60.

Stengel, George (1585-1651): German Jesuit, whose work Liber de monstris is referred to by another writer in 22-141 (and 120?).

Stephens/Stevens, Caleb (died c. 1661): citizen and apothecary of the City of London. A recipe is attributed to him in 10-9. See J. H. Morrison, Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills, Sentences and Probate Acts 1661-70 (London, 1935), p. 232.

Stephens, John: captain of the Chestnut, an East India Company ship sent to Mozambique to trade in 1662. He may be 'the Ingenious man that had been at Mozambique mentioned in 21-737ff.. Similarly, Boyle's informant could be the supercargo of the ship, who has not been identified. See Sir William Foster, The English Factories in India 1661-4 (Oxford, 1923), p. 96; Anthony Farrington, A Biographical Index of the East India Maritime Service Officers 1600-1834 (London, 1999), p. 745.

Story, Mrs.: mentioned as Boyle's former landlady in 26-4. Probably the wife of Abraham Storey, speculative builder, and Lady Ranelagh's neighbour in Pall Mall. In the 1660s letters to Boyle were sometimes addressed to him at their house but it is not known when he lived there. Correspondence, i, 411.

Strada, Famiano (1572-1649): Italian Jesuit historian and poet, The Siege of Antwerp(translated by Thomas Lancaster) ( 1656) This work is a translation of part of Famiano's De Bello Belgico (1632-47) and is quoted in 22-202.

Strode, John: Captain in the Duchess of York's regiment in 1684. Possibly the 'Capt Stroud' mentioned in 37-45a. He may well have been related to Sir William Strode, who owned mines in Devon and Cornwall. Charles C. Dalton, English Army Lists and Commission Registers, 1661-1714 (6 vols., London, 1892-1904), i, p. 323.

Strode, Richard (1638-1707): eldest son of Sir William Strode. Both he and his father provide Boyle with accounts of phenomena concerning mines on their property in Devon, especially in Workdiary 21. They are also mentioned in this connection in 23-45, and are possibly the informants in 23-38,-40. He has also been identified as the 'Ingenious person that is a great fowler' in 21-350, 351. This identification has been made due to the overlap between 21-349, in which Richard Strode and his father are explicitly named, and the same observation made as one of the items in 21-415. Other entries in the long collection of observations in 415, many observing fowling, are also identical to 350 and 351, and thus it is assumed that these two also derive from Robert Strode. See B.D Henning, The House of Commons 1660-90 (3 vols., London, 1983), ii, 511-12.

Strode, Sir William, of Newnham, Devon(1614-76): mine-owner, knighted 1660. He provides Boyle with several accounts of natural phenomena in his mines and lands, in Workdiary 21 and elsewhere, including 23-44,45. He is also mentioned in 37-103. He and his son Richard, may also be Boyle's informants in 23-38, 39, 40. B.D. Henning (ed), The House of Commons 1660-90 (3 vols., London, 1983), iii, pp. 512-13.

Stubbe, Henry (1632-76): physician and writer. In 1661 he went to Jamaica as the king's physician but ill heath compelled him to return to England in 1665. He provides Boyle with many accounts of phenomena in the West Indies, especially in Workdiary 21 (where he is introduced in 250 and merely referred to as 'he' for several following entries), and in 22-30,31, 32, 34. He may also be the ' Dr. S.' mentioned in 23-20.

Suchten, Alexander, of Zuchta (c. 1520-90): Polish Paracelsian physician. An 'oil' attributed to him is mentioned in 12-15 and 24-5.

Suyderdijck, Bernhardus: Referred to in 22-136 but not otherwise identified.

The Swallow: mentioned in WD36:73, she was a ship built in 1653 at Plymouth, originally called The Gainsborough (presumably after Cromwell's victory of 1643) and renamed in 1660. She was wrecked in 1692 of the coast of Ireland. J. J. Colledge, Ships of the Royal Navy (2 vols., 2nd edition, London 1987), I, p. 295.

Sydenham, Thomas (1624-89): renowned London physician. This is presumably the 'Dr Sydnham' mentioned in 26-3, although he was not made MD until 1676.

Sympson, Matthew: Mentioned in the accounts in 33-44, but not otherwise identified.

Tardin, Jean, Histoire naturelle de la fontaine qui brusle pres de Grenoble ( 1618). Quoted in 22-194, 95, 96, 97.

Teantre: Unidentified romance character. Referred to in 1-233, 234, 284.

Tenison, Thomas (1636-1715): Rector of St Martin in the Fields and subsequently Archbishop of Canterbury. Referred to in the account of Boyle's charitable expenditure in 33-37.

Terne, Dr Christopher (1620-73): London physician, MD Leyden 1647. Mentioned in 24-4. He may be the 'Dr. T' Boyle refers to in 21-530.

Theophrastus: leader of the Peripatetic School after Aristotle's death and botanical writer. Egbertus Bodaeus's 17th-century edition of Theophrastus' major work, De Historia Plantarum libri decem, Graece et Latine ( 1644) is referred to in 22-25. Theophrastus is also alluded to in 22-99.

Thévenot, Melchisédech (c. 1620-92): French traveller and editor of Relations de divers voyages curieux qui n'ont point été publiés et qu'on a traduits ou tirés des originaux ( 1663-72). Passages by Boym in this work are quoted in 22-101, 102

Thomas, David (c. 1634-94): Wiltshire physician. See Correspondence, ii, 451. He may be the 'D. T.' whom Boyle mentions in 21-331

Thrasybulus(died 388 BC): Athenian general and statesman. This may be the Thrasysbulum mentioned in 22-105.

Tiberius, Roman Emperor 14-37 AD. : Referred to in 22-191.

'Toms, Major': although so described in 21-632, this is almost certainly a reference to John Talcott (d. 1688), Major of Hertford County in Connecticut from August 1673. See D.L.Jacobus, List of Officials Civil, Military and Ecclesiastical of Connecticut Colony (New Haven, 1935), p.54.

Tricht, Antonius de: mentioned in 22-130 but not otherwise identified.

Trincavelli, Victor (1496-1568): studied at Padua and practised at Venice and particularly at Murano during plague, He taught at Padua in 1551. Mentioned in 22-126.

Trivier, Countess of: Referred in 10-1. Not identified.

Tuccius, Captain: Referred to in 22-202 but not identified.

Turberville, Daubeney(1612-96): physician, he specialised in eye diseases and corresponded with Boyle. Probably the 'skilfull Oculist' mentioned in 36-84.

Tutchin, Samuel (died 1674): ejected minister. Employed by the East India Company as chaplain on the Return, he returned to England with the ship in 1671, then went on a voyage to Bantam in 1672, and was appointed chaplain of Fort St George, Madras, November 1673, where he died. This may be the 'Mr Touching' who supplies Boyle with accounts of the East Indies in Workdiary 21. A. G. Matthews, Calamy Revised (Oxford, 1934), p. 499.

Twysden, John (died 1683 or 1688): London physician, MD Angers 1646. The mention of him in 13-24, and the recipe there provided, revises the claim made about him in Scrupulosity and Science, 64.

Utenhoven (Utenhof), Johannes (c. 1510-65): translator of the psalms into Dutch and one of the first pastors of the Dutch Church in London. His Peregrinatio ecclesiae Anglicæ is quoted in 22-127.

V., Monsieur: French traveller to the Far East. Referred to in 21-557 etc.

Vachet, Bénigne (1641-1720): one of two French missionaries to Siam, who, with Antoine Pascot, accompanied an embassy sent by the King of Siam to France. In September 1684 an ambassador who was part of the embassy to France visited England. It appears from the entry in 36-79 that one of the missionaries accompanied the ambassador and met Boyle. John Anderson, English Intercourse with Siam in the Seventeenth Century (London, 1890), p. 243; E. S. De Beer (ed.), The Diary of John Evelyn (6 vols, Oxford, 1955), IV, p. 388. Tommaso Nappo Index Biographique Français (2nd edition, 7 vols., Munchen, 1998), VII, p. 3176.

Valentine, Basil: chymist and alchemical writer. Supposedly a German Bendictine Monk born in Mainz in 1394 who wrote a number of medical and alchemical works, such as The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony ( 1604), which is the work referred to (under its Latin title) in 12-4 and 5. However, the works attributed to him were probably by Johann Thölde, an early seventeenth century councillor and salt boiler of Frankenhausen in Thuringia. He and his work are also referred to in 15-13; 22-117, there is also a deleted reference to him in 34-58.

Vallès, Francisco (1524-92): De sacra philosophia, sive de his quoe scripta sunt physice in libris sacris ( 1587). This work is quoted in 22-16. See Arturo Castiglioni, A History of Medicine trans. E. B. Krumbhaar, (2nd edn, New York, 1947), p. 467.

Vaughan, William (died 1719): New Hampshire planter in England in late 1684 and 1685, with Nathaniel Weare, to petition the Court in the name of the colonists against the perceived depredations of Governor Cranfield and the colony's proprietor Richard Mason. He is therefore probably one of the two gentlemen from New Hampshire mentioned in 36-1. J. Savage, A Genealogical Dictionary of the first settlers of New England (4 vols., first published Boston, 1860-1862, Baltimore, 1977), p. 368; Cal S.P. Colonial 1681-5 and 1685-9.

Vermina: Prince of Numidia, son of Syphax, allied with Carthage against Rome; character in Parthenissa. Referred to in 4-110, 210, 235, 243.

Vermuyden, Colonel John: Dutchman and protégé of Prince Rupert. He was part of the expedition to West Africa led by Robert Holmes in 1661, and in 1661-2 he sailed up the river Gambia in search of gold. He provides Boyle with accounts of the Gambia in 21-675ff. J. M. Gray, A History of The Gambia (2nd ed., London, 1966), pp. 53-4, 72-3.

Verulam, Francis Bacon, Lord (1561-1626): statesman and natural philosopher, author of Novum Organum. He was created Lord Verulam in 1618. Boyle frequently makes reference to his thought and natural philosophical works. In 21-308, Boyle mentions the 'tradition taken notice of by our Verulam that mineralls are very much lighter in the Bowells of the Earth'. It does appear that Bacon believed that minerals were heavier underground, for which see Graham Rees (ed), The Instauration Magna: Last Writings, The Oxford Francis Bacon XIII (Oxford, 2000), pp. 51, 273.

Vigani, John Francis (1650?-1712): first professor of chemistry in Cambridge, originally from Italy he arrived in England in 1682. He is possibly the Mr Vigam mentioned in 37-93.

Vigo, Giovanni da (1450-1525): Italian surgeon best known for his 'powder' (Lat. pulvis), a medication containing mercury, mentioned in 12-81

Vincent, Sir Matthias (c. 1645-87): knighted 20 March 1685. Chief factor of the East India Company in the Bay of Bengal 1671-81. His observations are recorded in 36-36. B.D. Henning (ed), The House of Commons, 1660-90 (3 vols., London 1983), III, pp. 641-2.

Virgil (Publius Vergilis Maro) (70 -19 B.C.): Latin poet. In 21-203, Boyle, when discussing the grafting of an apple tree on a willow, refers to Virgil's Georgics, book 2, line 70, where the poet describes the grafting of apple trees on plane trees. See R.A.B. Mynors (ed), Virgil Georgics (Oxford, 1990), p. 108.

Vossius, Isaac (1618-89): Church of England minister and scholar, born in Holland. Boyle makes reference to one of his writings in 21-361.

Waite, Nicholas (died c. 1716): he entered the service of the East India Company in 1671, and from June 1672 he was employed in the Tonkin factory from where he went on a private trading voyage to the Philippines which led to his imprisonment in Manilla. He was described as a prisoner there in the minutes of the East India Company on 5 January 1677 but was apparently at liberty by 1679. He is probably therefore the Mr Wake who is described as having 'liv'd some years in the Manilha Islands', in 36-18. Ethel Bruce Sainsbury (ed), Calendar of the Court Minutes of the East India Company 1677-9 (Oxford, 1938), pp. 2, 305, 312; Chaing Hsiu-Jung, Anthony Farrington, Huang Fu-San, Ts'ao Young-Ho, Wu Mi-Tsa, Cheng His-Fu, Ang Ka-In (eds), The English Factory in Taiwan 1670-85 (Taipei, 1995), p. 741.

Waldo, John: surgeon of the East India Company factory at Fort St George Madras 1670-8, he subsequently returned to England. He was in India again in 1680 on an interloping ship and treated a East India Company factor at Masulipatam. This may be the 'ingenious man' mentioned in 36-36. Henry Davison Love, Vestiges of Old Madras 1640-1800 (4 vols., London 1913), III, 550; Sir Charles Fawcett, The English Factories in India Vol. 4 (New Series) The Eastern Coast and Bay of Bengal (Oxford, 1955), pp. 114-5.

Wallis, John (1616-1703): mathematician, minister (DD Oxford 1654), cryptographer, Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford from 1649 until his death, and one of the founders of the Royal Society. He is mentioned in Workdiary 19, and is probably the 'eminent mathematician' who appears occasionally in Workdiary 21. Royal Society, 146

Walton, Izaak (1593-1683): The Compleat Angler (3rd edition, 1661). This book is cited 22-9, 15 (although some of Boyle's references are incorrect, and the passage quoted in 22-14 actually appears on p. 191 of the 1661 edition).

Warner, Colonel Philip (died 1689): Lieutenant Governor of Antigua from 1671 to 1675, under Lord Willoughby Governor General of the Caribbee islands, 1667-73. His military rank presumably derived from his command of a regiment of foot at the taking of Cayenne from the French in 1667. His responses to Boyle's enquires are recorded in 36-34,35.

Warr, John (d. 1715): A trusted amanuensis of Boyle's, who was his executor after his death. Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26.

Warwick, Charles Rich (1616-73), 4th Earl of: Boyle's brother-in-law; most likely the 'E of W' mentioned in 21-633a.

Warwick, Mary Rich, Countess of (1624-78): seventh daughter to the Earl of Cork and Boyle's sister, she married Charles Rich, heir to the 3rd Earl of Warwick, in 1641. Her family house at Leez in Essex was often visited by Boyle. She is referred to in 21-317 and 21-633a, in the former case in connection wth her monkey, also referred to in Works, viii, 386.

Watson, Thomas: A tenant of Boyle's on his Irish estates. Mentioned in 33-44. See Correspondence, vi, 103.

Weare , Nathaniel (c. 1635-1718): New Hampshire planter in England in late 1684 and 1685, with William Vaughan, to petition the Court in the name of the colonists against the perceived depredations of Governor Cranfield and the colony's proprietor Richard Mason. He is therefore probably one of the two gentlemen from New Hampshire mentioned in 36-1. J. Savage, A Genealogical Dictionary of the first settlers of New England (4 vols., first published Boston, 1860-1862, Baltimore, 1977), p. 441; Cal S.P. Colonial 1681-5 and 1685-9.

Whichcote, Benjamin (1609-83): DD Cambridge 1649, vicar of St Anne Blackfriars 1662-8 and then of St Lawrence Jury until 1683. He was a correspondent of Hartlib's. He may be the Dr Whitecock mentioned in 26-3.

Whitaker, John: A servant of Boyle's, referred to in memoranda for his Will in 33-26 and in his Will: 'Life of Boyle', p. 261.

White, Christopher (c. 1650-95): Boyle's laboratory assistant and later operator of the laboratory at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Referred to in memoranda for Boyle's Will in 33-26.

Willis, Thomas (1621-75): one of the leading physiologists at Oxford in the late 1650's, and author of Cerebri anatome ( 1664) and other works. From 1666, he practiced medicine in London, and he is mentioned in connection with his medical practice in 21-545.

Willoughby, William, 6th Baron Willoughby of Parham (c. 1616-73): Governor General of Barbados and the Caribbee islands, 1667-73. This is presumably the Lord Willoughby mentioned in 36-34.

Willshaw, Thomas (died 1702): captain of various ships in the Royal Navy from 1666 and subsequently a naval administrator. This is possibly the Capt Thomas Wilson mentioned in 36-73. David Syrett and R. L. DiNardo, Commissioned Sea Officers of the Royal Navy 1660-1815 NRS Occasional Publication, vol 1, ( 1994), p. 474. J. R. Tanner (ed), A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College Cambridge Naval Records Society, (4 vols., 1902-23), I, p. 425.

Wilmot, Anne (1614-96): wife of Henry Wilmot, 2nd Viscount Wilmot as of c. 1644. He was made Earl of Rochester in 1652 so technically she would have been the Countess of Rochester at this time, but her husband's additional title would not have been recognised by the English authorities. A recipe of hers is given in 13-[7a].

Wood, Sir Edward: Envoy extraordinary to Sweden 1672-9. Mentioned in 32-8. Gary M. Bell, A Handlist of British Diplomatic Representatives 1509-1688 (London, 1990), p. 278

Worsley, Benjamin (c. 1617-77): surgeon and projector. In 1646 he petitioned Parliament for a patent for saltpetre. A leading associate of Samuel Hartlib, he soon became known to Boyle, for whom he was an early influence. He features heavily in some of Boyle's earliest scientific workdiaries, especially Workdiary 6 (1650), where a long series of recipes, 1-13, are attributed to him. A recipe of his also appears in 12-63 and another (probably from him) in 13-22. The passage in 22-73 is an extract from a letter from him, for which see Correspondence, ii, 569. He may be the 'Mr W' mentioned in 37-56.

Wylde, Edmund (c.1614-96): virtuoso, FRS 1661 and friend of John Aubrey. A recipe of his is provided in 13-35.

Zacuto, Abraham Lusitano (1575-1642): Portuguese physician and philosopher of Jewish extraction, Historiarum medicarum libri sex: in quibus medicinales omnes medicorum principium historiae ... proponuntur ... et ... observationibus illustrantur ( 1639). This is probably the work which is quoted by Boyle in 22-61 and referred to by an author on gems in 22-71.

Zephalinda: princess and friend of Parthenissa; character in Parthenissa.